Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract of the root of Erythrina addisoniae (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of four new (1-4), along with 2 known prenylated isoflavonoids (5-6). The structures of the isolates were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis, focusing on interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR, and MS data. All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), as well as their growth inhibition on MCF7, adriamycin-resistant MCF7 (MCF7/ADR), and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Compounds which exhibited PTP1B inhibitory activity (IC(50) values ranging from 4.6 ± 0.3 to 24.2 ± 2.1 μM) showed potential cytotoxic activity (IC(50) values ranging from 3.97 ± 0.17 to 11.4 ± 1.9 μM). Taken together, our data suggest that prenylated isoflavonoids, especially the isoflavone-type skeleton could be considered as new lead compounds against breast cancer via PTP1B inhibition.