New soil composition data for Europe and Australia

Demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping

The GEMAS Project Team, C. Reimann, P. de Caritat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

68 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude.Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements.The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)239-252
Number of pages14
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Volume416
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2012

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learning
Soils
Chemical analysis
phosphorus pentoxide
soil
Soil surveys
last glaciation
soil survey
Weathering
Oxides
Ignition
Europe
weathering
oxide
aqua regia
continent

Cite this

@article{cd54b30eb99b4a4b87094f0c3dee11d0,
title = "New soil composition data for Europe and Australia: Demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping",
abstract = "New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72{\%} for Australia compared to 60{\%} for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude.Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements.The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.",
keywords = "Geochemistry, Major elements, Quality control, Regolith, Topsoil, Trace elements",
author = "{The GEMAS Project Team} and C. Reimann and {de Caritat}, P. and S. Albanese and M. Andersson and A. Arnoldussen and R. Baritz and Batista, {M. J.} and A. Bel-lan and M. Birke and D. Cicchella and A. Demetriades and E. Dinelli and {De Vivo}, B. and {De Vos}, W. and M. Duris and A. Dusza-Dobek and Eggen, {O. A.} and M. Eklund and V. Ernstsen and P. Filzmoser and Finne, {T. E.} and D. Flight and S. Forrester and M. Fuchs and U. Fugedi and A. Gilucis and M. Gosar and V. Gregorauskiene and A. Gulan and J. Halamic and E. Haslinger and P. Hayoz and G. Hobiger and R. Hoffmann and J. Hoogewerff and H. Hrvatovic and S. Husnjak and L. Janik and Johnson, {C. C.} and G. Jordan and J. Kirby and J. Kivisilla and V. Klos and F. Krone and P. Kwecko and L. Kuti and A. Ladenberger and A. Lima and J. Locutura and P. Lucivjansky and D. Mackovych and Malyuk, {B. I.} and R. Maquil and M. McLaughlin and Meuli, {R. G.} and N. Miosic and G. Mol and P. N{\'e}grel and P. O'Connor and K. Oorts and Ottesen, {R. T.} and A. Pasieczna and V. Petersell and S. Pfleiderer and M. Ponavic and C. Prazeres and U. Rauch and C. Reimann and I. Salpeteur and A. Schedl and A. Scheib and I. Schoeters and P. Sefcik and E. Sellersj{\"o} and F. Skopljak and I. Slaninka and A. Šorša and R. Srvkota and T. Stafilov and T. Tarvainen and V. Trendavilov and P. Valera and V. Verougstraete and D. Vidojevic and Zissimos, {A. M.} and Z. Zomeni and E. Bastrakov and D. Bowbridge and P. Boyle and S. Briggs and D. Brown and M. Brown and K. Brownlie and P. Burrows and G. Burton and J. Byass and {de Caritat}, P. and N. Chanthapanya and M. Cooper and L. Cranfield and S. Curtis and T. Denaro and C. Dhnaram and T. Dhu and G. Diprose and A. Fabris and M. Fairclough and S. Fanning and R. Fidler and M. Fitzell and P. Flitcroft and C. Fricke and D. Fulton and J. Furlonger and G. Gordon and A. Green and G. Green and J. Greenfield and J. Harley and S. Heawood and T. Hegvold and K. Henderson and E. House and Z. Husain and B. Krsteska and J. Lam and R. Langford and T. Lavigne and B. Linehan and M. Livingstone and A. Lukss and R. Maier and A. Makuei and L. McCabe and P. McDonald and D. McIlroy and D. McIntyre and P. Morris and G. O'Connell and W. Pappas and J. Parsons and C. Petrick and W. Poignand and R. Roberts and J. Ryle and A. Seymon and K. Sherry and J. Skinner and M. Smith and C. Strickland and S. Sutton and R. Swindell and H. Tait and J. Tang and A. Thomson and C. Thun and B. Uppill and K. Wall and J. Watkins and T. Watson and E. Webber and A. Whiting and J. Wilford and T. Wilson and A. Wygralak",
year = "2012",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.019",
language = "English",
volume = "416",
pages = "239--252",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

New soil composition data for Europe and Australia : Demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping. / The GEMAS Project Team; Reimann, C.; de Caritat, P.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 416, 01.02.2012, p. 239-252.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - New soil composition data for Europe and Australia

T2 - Demonstrating comparability, identifying continental-scale processes and learning lessons for global geochemical mapping

AU - The GEMAS Project Team

AU - Reimann, C.

AU - de Caritat, P.

AU - Albanese, S.

AU - Andersson, M.

AU - Arnoldussen, A.

AU - Baritz, R.

AU - Batista, M. J.

AU - Bel-lan, A.

AU - Birke, M.

AU - Cicchella, D.

AU - Demetriades, A.

AU - Dinelli, E.

AU - De Vivo, B.

AU - De Vos, W.

AU - Duris, M.

AU - Dusza-Dobek, A.

AU - Eggen, O. A.

AU - Eklund, M.

AU - Ernstsen, V.

AU - Filzmoser, P.

AU - Finne, T. E.

AU - Flight, D.

AU - Forrester, S.

AU - Fuchs, M.

AU - Fugedi, U.

AU - Gilucis, A.

AU - Gosar, M.

AU - Gregorauskiene, V.

AU - Gulan, A.

AU - Halamic, J.

AU - Haslinger, E.

AU - Hayoz, P.

AU - Hobiger, G.

AU - Hoffmann, R.

AU - Hoogewerff, J.

AU - Hrvatovic, H.

AU - Husnjak, S.

AU - Janik, L.

AU - Johnson, C. C.

AU - Jordan, G.

AU - Kirby, J.

AU - Kivisilla, J.

AU - Klos, V.

AU - Krone, F.

AU - Kwecko, P.

AU - Kuti, L.

AU - Ladenberger, A.

AU - Lima, A.

AU - Locutura, J.

AU - Lucivjansky, P.

AU - Mackovych, D.

AU - Malyuk, B. I.

AU - Maquil, R.

AU - McLaughlin, M.

AU - Meuli, R. G.

AU - Miosic, N.

AU - Mol, G.

AU - Négrel, P.

AU - O'Connor, P.

AU - Oorts, K.

AU - Ottesen, R. T.

AU - Pasieczna, A.

AU - Petersell, V.

AU - Pfleiderer, S.

AU - Ponavic, M.

AU - Prazeres, C.

AU - Rauch, U.

AU - Reimann, C.

AU - Salpeteur, I.

AU - Schedl, A.

AU - Scheib, A.

AU - Schoeters, I.

AU - Sefcik, P.

AU - Sellersjö, E.

AU - Skopljak, F.

AU - Slaninka, I.

AU - Šorša, A.

AU - Srvkota, R.

AU - Stafilov, T.

AU - Tarvainen, T.

AU - Trendavilov, V.

AU - Valera, P.

AU - Verougstraete, V.

AU - Vidojevic, D.

AU - Zissimos, A. M.

AU - Zomeni, Z.

AU - Bastrakov, E.

AU - Bowbridge, D.

AU - Boyle, P.

AU - Briggs, S.

AU - Brown, D.

AU - Brown, M.

AU - Brownlie, K.

AU - Burrows, P.

AU - Burton, G.

AU - Byass, J.

AU - de Caritat, P.

AU - Chanthapanya, N.

AU - Cooper, M.

AU - Cranfield, L.

AU - Curtis, S.

AU - Denaro, T.

AU - Dhnaram, C.

AU - Dhu, T.

AU - Diprose, G.

AU - Fabris, A.

AU - Fairclough, M.

AU - Fanning, S.

AU - Fidler, R.

AU - Fitzell, M.

AU - Flitcroft, P.

AU - Fricke, C.

AU - Fulton, D.

AU - Furlonger, J.

AU - Gordon, G.

AU - Green, A.

AU - Green, G.

AU - Greenfield, J.

AU - Harley, J.

AU - Heawood, S.

AU - Hegvold, T.

AU - Henderson, K.

AU - House, E.

AU - Husain, Z.

AU - Krsteska, B.

AU - Lam, J.

AU - Langford, R.

AU - Lavigne, T.

AU - Linehan, B.

AU - Livingstone, M.

AU - Lukss, A.

AU - Maier, R.

AU - Makuei, A.

AU - McCabe, L.

AU - McDonald, P.

AU - McIlroy, D.

AU - McIntyre, D.

AU - Morris, P.

AU - O'Connell, G.

AU - Pappas, W.

AU - Parsons, J.

AU - Petrick, C.

AU - Poignand, W.

AU - Roberts, R.

AU - Ryle, J.

AU - Seymon, A.

AU - Sherry, K.

AU - Skinner, J.

AU - Smith, M.

AU - Strickland, C.

AU - Sutton, S.

AU - Swindell, R.

AU - Tait, H.

AU - Tang, J.

AU - Thomson, A.

AU - Thun, C.

AU - Uppill, B.

AU - Wall, K.

AU - Watkins, J.

AU - Watson, T.

AU - Webber, E.

AU - Whiting, A.

AU - Wilford, J.

AU - Wilson, T.

AU - Wygralak, A.

PY - 2012/2/1

Y1 - 2012/2/1

N2 - New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude.Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements.The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

AB - New geochemical data from two continental-scale soil surveys in Europe and Australia are compared. Internal project standards were exchanged to assess comparability of analytical results. The total concentration of 26 oxides/elements (Al2O3, As, Ba, CaO, Ce, Co, Cr, Fe2O3, Ga, K2O, MgO, MnO, Na2O, Nb, Ni, P2O5, Pb, Rb, SiO2, Sr, Th, TiO2, V, Y, Zn, and Zr), Loss On Ignition (LOI) and pH are demonstrated to be comparable. Additionally, directly comparable data for 14 elements in an aqua regia extraction (Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, La, Li, Mn, Mo, and Pb) are provided for both continents. Median soil compositions are close, though generally Australian soils are depleted in all elements with the exception of SiO2 and Zr. This is interpreted to reflect the generally longer and, in places, more intense weathering in Australia. Calculation of the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) gives a median value of 72% for Australia compared to 60% for Europe. Element concentrations vary over 3 (and up to 5) orders of magnitude.Several elements (total As and Ni; aqua regia As, Co, Bi, Li, Pb) have a lower element concentration by a factor of 2-3 in the soils of northern Europe compared to southern Europe. The break in concentration coincides with the maximum extent of the last glaciation. The younger soils of northern Europe are more similar to the Australian soils than the older soils from southern Europe. In Australia, the central region with especially high SiO2 concentrations is commonly depleted in many elements.The new data define the natural background variation for two continents on both hemispheres based on real data. Judging from the experience of these two continental surveys, it can be concluded that analytical quality is the key requirement for the success of global geochemical mapping.

KW - Geochemistry

KW - Major elements

KW - Quality control

KW - Regolith

KW - Topsoil

KW - Trace elements

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84861505744&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.019

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.11.019

M3 - Article

VL - 416

SP - 239

EP - 252

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

ER -