Organic oozes enriched in iron monosulfides are called monosulfidic black ooze (MBO). The occurrence and abundance of MBO were quantified in natural tributaries and man-made drainage canals on a typical coastal river floodplain. Thick deposits of MBO occurred in drains and the protected upper reaches of tributaries in acid sulfate soil (ASS) areas. Acid-tolerant lilies grew prolifically in these areas, contributing large amounts of decaying organic debris. The MBO contained up to 6.3% acid-volatile sulfur (equivalent to 18% iron monosulfide), an order of magnitude greater than reported previously for natural sediments. It also contained up to 6% pyritic sulfur (equivalent to approximately 11% pyrite). Sulfate and iron from surrounding ASS combined with abundant organic matter and protected flow in ASS drains provide excellent conditions for sulfate reduction, leading to iron sulfide precipitation and the accumulation of organic detritus. When mixed with water, the iron monosulfide in MBO can react within minutes to completely consume dissolved oxygen. There are thousands of drains in ASS areas that may have thick deposits of MBO. The MBO has the potential to cause rapid and severe effects on water quality. The challenge is to develop management practices that reduce the formation and accumulation of MBO in acid sulfate landscapes.