Health systems throughout the developed world face the problem of market failure. Left to itself, the market mechanism is unable to ensure the equitable distribution of health and medical services to those who need and want them. Rural and remote communities represent an extreme example in which it is often uneconomic for private or public organisations to make the necessary investments to provide services that are desired or needed in the local community. It follows that there are service gaps and that rural residents often experience poor access to timely and high-quality care. Add to this the countries facing financial challenges attempting to make the transition from resource based and traditional manufacturing to high-value, knowledge-intensive economies and we find health providers struggling to provide necessary services with available resources.