“Opportunity to learn” has evolved into an umbrella phrase for describing a large range of settings, resources, structures, and processes. The aim of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that can accommodate a wide range of opportunities to learn, not just those provided by teachers in classrooms. An inclusive framework can bring together diverse studies about opportunity to learn, increasing synergies and uncovering interconnections, and making more visible marginalized forms of learning. It can also be used as a framework for holding governments, education authorities, and policy makers accountable for providing equitable opportunities and conditions to learn. This article presents a three-dimensional conceptual framework of opportunities and conditions to learn (OCL) that captures (a) notions of what opportunities exist and where those opportunities exist and opportunities offered by whom, as well as (b) a spate of conditions that can shape those opportunities.