This article examines how patronage networks operate in subnational governments in Indonesia paying particular attention to how they have affected human resource management (HRM) practices in education and health services. Corrupt practices were found in varying degrees in all the provincial public services studied. They were associated with patronage systems and involved illegal payments for entrance exam results, recruitment and selection, placement, promotion, and transfer. These practices had an adverse effect on the quantity and quality of service delivery and represented a challenge to social justice.
Blunt, P., Turner, M., & Lindroth, H. (2012). Patronage, Service Delivery, and Social Justice in Indonesia. International Journal of Public Administration, 35(3), 214-220. https://doi.org/10.1080/01900692.2011.641050