Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study

James F. Sallis, Ester Cerin, Terry L. Conway, Marc Adams, Lawrence Frank, Michael Pratt, Deborah Salvo, Jasper Schipperijin, Graham Smith, Kelli L. Cain, Rachel Davey, Jacqueline Kerr, Poh-Chin Lai, Josef Mitas, Rodrigo Reis, Olga L. Sarmiento, Grant Schofield, Jens Troelsen, Delfien Van Dyck, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij & 1 others Neville Owen

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    284 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background
    Physical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults.

    Methods
    We based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18–66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4–7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions.

    Results
    Four of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003–1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011–1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018–1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033–1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45–59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines.

    Interpretation
    Design of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic.

    Funding
    Funding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2207-2217
    Number of pages11
    JournalLancet
    Volume387
    Issue number10034
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2016

    Fingerprint

    Cross-Sectional Studies
    Pandemics
    City Planning
    Geographic Information Systems
    National Cancer Institute (U.S.)
    National Institutes of Health (U.S.)
    Social Class
    Buffers
    Guidelines

    Cite this

    Sallis, J. F., Cerin, E., Conway, T. L., Adams, M., Frank, L., Pratt, M., ... Owen, N. (2016). Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. Lancet, 387(10034), 2207-2217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2
    Sallis, James F. ; Cerin, Ester ; Conway, Terry L. ; Adams, Marc ; Frank, Lawrence ; Pratt, Michael ; Salvo, Deborah ; Schipperijin, Jasper ; Smith, Graham ; Cain, Kelli L. ; Davey, Rachel ; Kerr, Jacqueline ; Lai, Poh-Chin ; Mitas, Josef ; Reis, Rodrigo ; Sarmiento, Olga L. ; Schofield, Grant ; Troelsen, Jens ; Van Dyck, Delfien ; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse ; Owen, Neville. / Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. In: Lancet. 2016 ; Vol. 387, No. 10034. pp. 2207-2217.
    @article{5a4eb106f50d43f2ae2983f793b046bb,
    title = "Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study",
    abstract = "BackgroundPhysical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults.MethodsWe based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18–66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4–7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions.ResultsFour of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95{\%} CI 1·003–1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011–1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018–1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033–1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45–59{\%} of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines.InterpretationDesign of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic.FundingFunding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources",
    author = "Sallis, {James F.} and Ester Cerin and Conway, {Terry L.} and Marc Adams and Lawrence Frank and Michael Pratt and Deborah Salvo and Jasper Schipperijin and Graham Smith and Cain, {Kelli L.} and Rachel Davey and Jacqueline Kerr and Poh-Chin Lai and Josef Mitas and Rodrigo Reis and Sarmiento, {Olga L.} and Grant Schofield and Jens Troelsen and {Van Dyck}, Delfien and {De Bourdeaudhuij}, Ilse and Neville Owen",
    year = "2016",
    doi = "10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2",
    language = "English",
    volume = "387",
    pages = "2207--2217",
    journal = "Lancet",
    issn = "0140-6736",
    publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
    number = "10034",

    }

    Sallis, JF, Cerin, E, Conway, TL, Adams, M, Frank, L, Pratt, M, Salvo, D, Schipperijin, J, Smith, G, Cain, KL, Davey, R, Kerr, J, Lai, P-C, Mitas, J, Reis, R, Sarmiento, OL, Schofield, G, Troelsen, J, Van Dyck, D, De Bourdeaudhuij, I & Owen, N 2016, 'Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study', Lancet, vol. 387, no. 10034, pp. 2207-2217. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2

    Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study. / Sallis, James F.; Cerin, Ester; Conway, Terry L.; Adams, Marc; Frank, Lawrence; Pratt, Michael; Salvo, Deborah; Schipperijin, Jasper; Smith, Graham; Cain, Kelli L.; Davey, Rachel; Kerr, Jacqueline; Lai, Poh-Chin; Mitas, Josef; Reis, Rodrigo; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Schofield, Grant; Troelsen, Jens; Van Dyck, Delfien; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Owen, Neville.

    In: Lancet, Vol. 387, No. 10034, 2016, p. 2207-2217.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Physical activity in relation to urban environments in 14 cities worldwide: A cross-sectional study

    AU - Sallis, James F.

    AU - Cerin, Ester

    AU - Conway, Terry L.

    AU - Adams, Marc

    AU - Frank, Lawrence

    AU - Pratt, Michael

    AU - Salvo, Deborah

    AU - Schipperijin, Jasper

    AU - Smith, Graham

    AU - Cain, Kelli L.

    AU - Davey, Rachel

    AU - Kerr, Jacqueline

    AU - Lai, Poh-Chin

    AU - Mitas, Josef

    AU - Reis, Rodrigo

    AU - Sarmiento, Olga L.

    AU - Schofield, Grant

    AU - Troelsen, Jens

    AU - Van Dyck, Delfien

    AU - De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    AU - Owen, Neville

    PY - 2016

    Y1 - 2016

    N2 - BackgroundPhysical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults.MethodsWe based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18–66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4–7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions.ResultsFour of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003–1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011–1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018–1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033–1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45–59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines.InterpretationDesign of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic.FundingFunding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources

    AB - BackgroundPhysical inactivity is a global pandemic responsible for over 5 million deaths annually through its effects on multiple non-communicable diseases. We aimed to document how objectively measured attributes of the urban environment are related to objectively measured physical activity, in an international sample of adults.MethodsWe based our analyses on the International Physical activity and Environment Network (IPEN) adult study, which was a coordinated, international, cross-sectional study. Participants were sampled from neighbourhoods with varied levels of walkability and socioeconomic status. The present analyses of data from the IPEN adult study included 6822 adults aged 18–66 years from 14 cities in ten countries on five continents. Indicators of walkability, public transport access, and park access were assessed in 1·0 km and 0·5 km street network buffers around each participant's residential address with geographic information systems. Mean daily minutes of moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity were measured with 4–7 days of accelerometer monitoring. Associations between environmental attributes and physical activity were estimated using generalised additive mixed models with gamma variance and logarithmic link functions.ResultsFour of six environmental attributes were significantly, positively, and linearly related to physical activity in the single variable models: net residential density (exp[b] 1·006 [95% CI 1·003–1·009]; p=0·001), intersection density (1·069 [1·011–1·130]; p=0·019), public transport density (1·037 [1·018–1·056]; p=0·0007), and number of parks (1·146 [1·033–1·272]; p=0·010). Mixed land use and distance to nearest public transport point were not related to physical activity. The difference in physical activity between participants living in the most and least activity-friendly neighbourhoods ranged from 68 min/week to 89 min/week, which represents 45–59% of the 150 min/week recommended by guidelines.InterpretationDesign of urban environments has the potential to contribute substantially to physical activity. Similarity of findings across cities suggests the promise of engaging urban planning, transportation, and parks sectors in efforts to reduce the health burden of the global physical inactivity pandemic.FundingFunding for coordination of the IPEN adult study, including the present analysis, was provided by the National Cancer Institute of National Institutes of Health (CA127296) with studies in each country funded by different sources

    U2 - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2

    DO - 10.1016/S0140-6736(15)01284-2

    M3 - Article

    VL - 387

    SP - 2207

    EP - 2217

    JO - Lancet

    JF - Lancet

    SN - 0140-6736

    IS - 10034

    ER -