Political strategies of American environmentalism: Inclusion and beyond

David Schlosberg, John S. Dryzek

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


This article examines and evaluates the strategy of inclusion used by the environmental movement in the United States in light of the imperatives of state action. We try to explain why it is that the United States was the pioneer of environmental policy in the 1970s, but has since become the international laggard. Given the changed position of the state, we try to sort out when particular strategies on the part of the environmental movement make sense in terms of promoting a more ecological society. In addition to inclusion in state processes as an interest group, we examine environmental action in an oppositional civil society, dual strategies, and the possibility of a move toward ecological modernization by both the movement and the state.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)787-804
Number of pages18
JournalSociety and Natural Resources
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


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