Predicting excess cost for older inpatients with clinical complexity

A retrospective cohort study examining cognition, comorbidities and complications

Kasia Bail, Brian Draper, Helen Berry, Rosemary Karmel, John Goss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
1 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Background Hospital-acquired complications increase length of stay and contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Older adults are known to be at risk for four key hospital-acquired complications (pressure injuries, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and delirium). These complications have been identified as sensitive to nursing characteristics such as staffing levels and level of education. The cost of these complications compared to the cost of admission severity, dementia, other comorbidities or age has not been established. Method To investigate costs associated with nurse-sensitive hospital-acquired complications in an older patient population 157,178 overnight public hospital episodes for all patients over age 50 from one Australian state, 2006/07 were examined. A retrospective cohort study design with linear regression analysis provided modelling of length-of-stay costs. Explanatory variables included patient age, sex, comorbidities, admission severity, dementia status, surgical status and four complications. Extra costs were based on above-average length-of-stay for each patient’s Diagnosis Related Group from hospital discharge data. Results For adults over 50 who have length of stay longer than average for their diagnostic condition, comorbid dementia predicts an extra cost of A$874, (US$1,247); any one of four key complications predicts A$812 (US$1,159); each increase in admission severity score predicts A $295 ($US421); each additional comorbidity predicts A$259 (US$370), and for each year of age above 50 predicts A$20 (US$29) (all estimates significant at p<0.0001). Discussion Hospital-acquired complications and dementia cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity, but admission severity is a better predictor of excess cost. Because complications are potentially preventable and dementia care in hospitals can be improved, risk-reduction strategies for common complications, particularly for patients with dementia could be cost effective. Conclusions Complications and dementia were found to cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0193319
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalPLoS One
Volume13
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2018

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dementia
cohort studies
cognition
Cognition
Comorbidity
Inpatients
Cohort Studies
Retrospective Studies
Costs and Cost Analysis
Dementia
Costs
Length of Stay
urinary tract diseases
comorbidity
risk reduction
educational status
nurses
Nursing
Delirium
pneumonia

Cite this

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title = "Predicting excess cost for older inpatients with clinical complexity: A retrospective cohort study examining cognition, comorbidities and complications",
abstract = "Background Hospital-acquired complications increase length of stay and contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Older adults are known to be at risk for four key hospital-acquired complications (pressure injuries, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and delirium). These complications have been identified as sensitive to nursing characteristics such as staffing levels and level of education. The cost of these complications compared to the cost of admission severity, dementia, other comorbidities or age has not been established. Method To investigate costs associated with nurse-sensitive hospital-acquired complications in an older patient population 157,178 overnight public hospital episodes for all patients over age 50 from one Australian state, 2006/07 were examined. A retrospective cohort study design with linear regression analysis provided modelling of length-of-stay costs. Explanatory variables included patient age, sex, comorbidities, admission severity, dementia status, surgical status and four complications. Extra costs were based on above-average length-of-stay for each patient’s Diagnosis Related Group from hospital discharge data. Results For adults over 50 who have length of stay longer than average for their diagnostic condition, comorbid dementia predicts an extra cost of A$874, (US$1,247); any one of four key complications predicts A$812 (US$1,159); each increase in admission severity score predicts A $295 ($US421); each additional comorbidity predicts A$259 (US$370), and for each year of age above 50 predicts A$20 (US$29) (all estimates significant at p<0.0001). Discussion Hospital-acquired complications and dementia cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity, but admission severity is a better predictor of excess cost. Because complications are potentially preventable and dementia care in hospitals can be improved, risk-reduction strategies for common complications, particularly for patients with dementia could be cost effective. Conclusions Complications and dementia were found to cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity.",
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Predicting excess cost for older inpatients with clinical complexity : A retrospective cohort study examining cognition, comorbidities and complications. / Bail, Kasia; Draper, Brian; Berry, Helen; Karmel, Rosemary; Goss, John.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 13, No. 2, e0193319, 01.02.2018, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Predicting excess cost for older inpatients with clinical complexity

T2 - A retrospective cohort study examining cognition, comorbidities and complications

AU - Bail, Kasia

AU - Draper, Brian

AU - Berry, Helen

AU - Karmel, Rosemary

AU - Goss, John

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N2 - Background Hospital-acquired complications increase length of stay and contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Older adults are known to be at risk for four key hospital-acquired complications (pressure injuries, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and delirium). These complications have been identified as sensitive to nursing characteristics such as staffing levels and level of education. The cost of these complications compared to the cost of admission severity, dementia, other comorbidities or age has not been established. Method To investigate costs associated with nurse-sensitive hospital-acquired complications in an older patient population 157,178 overnight public hospital episodes for all patients over age 50 from one Australian state, 2006/07 were examined. A retrospective cohort study design with linear regression analysis provided modelling of length-of-stay costs. Explanatory variables included patient age, sex, comorbidities, admission severity, dementia status, surgical status and four complications. Extra costs were based on above-average length-of-stay for each patient’s Diagnosis Related Group from hospital discharge data. Results For adults over 50 who have length of stay longer than average for their diagnostic condition, comorbid dementia predicts an extra cost of A$874, (US$1,247); any one of four key complications predicts A$812 (US$1,159); each increase in admission severity score predicts A $295 ($US421); each additional comorbidity predicts A$259 (US$370), and for each year of age above 50 predicts A$20 (US$29) (all estimates significant at p<0.0001). Discussion Hospital-acquired complications and dementia cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity, but admission severity is a better predictor of excess cost. Because complications are potentially preventable and dementia care in hospitals can be improved, risk-reduction strategies for common complications, particularly for patients with dementia could be cost effective. Conclusions Complications and dementia were found to cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity.

AB - Background Hospital-acquired complications increase length of stay and contribute to poorer patient outcomes. Older adults are known to be at risk for four key hospital-acquired complications (pressure injuries, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and delirium). These complications have been identified as sensitive to nursing characteristics such as staffing levels and level of education. The cost of these complications compared to the cost of admission severity, dementia, other comorbidities or age has not been established. Method To investigate costs associated with nurse-sensitive hospital-acquired complications in an older patient population 157,178 overnight public hospital episodes for all patients over age 50 from one Australian state, 2006/07 were examined. A retrospective cohort study design with linear regression analysis provided modelling of length-of-stay costs. Explanatory variables included patient age, sex, comorbidities, admission severity, dementia status, surgical status and four complications. Extra costs were based on above-average length-of-stay for each patient’s Diagnosis Related Group from hospital discharge data. Results For adults over 50 who have length of stay longer than average for their diagnostic condition, comorbid dementia predicts an extra cost of A$874, (US$1,247); any one of four key complications predicts A$812 (US$1,159); each increase in admission severity score predicts A $295 ($US421); each additional comorbidity predicts A$259 (US$370), and for each year of age above 50 predicts A$20 (US$29) (all estimates significant at p<0.0001). Discussion Hospital-acquired complications and dementia cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity, but admission severity is a better predictor of excess cost. Because complications are potentially preventable and dementia care in hospitals can be improved, risk-reduction strategies for common complications, particularly for patients with dementia could be cost effective. Conclusions Complications and dementia were found to cost more than other kinds of inpatient complexity.

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KW - Middle Aged

KW - Pneumonia/diagnosis

KW - Pressure Ulcer/diagnosis

KW - Retrospective Studies

KW - Urinary Tract Infections/diagnosis

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