Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population

relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

Victor Maduabuchi Oguoma, Ezekiel Uba Nwose, Timothy Chas Skinner, Kester Awharentomah Digban, Innocent Chukwu Onyia, Ross Stuart Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults.

METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening.

RESULTS: The 422 participants (273 females and 149 males) [corrected] had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance.

CONCLUSION: This study has shown that a significant number of modifiable CVD risk factors exist in the rural and urban migrants of an adult Nigerian population. While income level did not affect the CVD risk factor prevalence, it did affect accessibility to CVD risk screening. There is a need for access to diagnosis of modifiable risk factors at all levels of society.

Original languageEnglish
Article number397
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 18 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Cardiovascular Diseases
Population
HDL Cholesterol
Economics
Cholesterol
Prediabetic State
Educational Status
Abdominal Obesity
Hypertriglyceridemia
Nigeria
Hypercholesterolemia
Ethnic Groups
LDL Cholesterol
Blood Glucose
Triglycerides
Body Mass Index
Multivariate Analysis
Cross-Sectional Studies
Demography
Blood Pressure

Cite this

Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi ; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba ; Skinner, Timothy Chas ; Digban, Kester Awharentomah ; Onyia, Innocent Chukwu ; Richards, Ross Stuart. / Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population : relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening. In: BMC Public Health. 2015 ; Vol. 15, No. 1. pp. 1-16.
@article{62a332425c124273bc750cd67aa07f9f,
title = "Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population: relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults.METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening.RESULTS: The 422 participants (273 females and 149 males) [corrected] had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9{\%}), diabetes (5.4{\%}), hypertension (35.7{\%}), low HDL (17.8{\%}), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2{\%}), hypercholesterolemia (38.1{\%}) and central obesity of 52.2{\%} was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance.CONCLUSION: This study has shown that a significant number of modifiable CVD risk factors exist in the rural and urban migrants of an adult Nigerian population. While income level did not affect the CVD risk factor prevalence, it did affect accessibility to CVD risk screening. There is a need for access to diagnosis of modifiable risk factors at all levels of society.",
keywords = "Adult, Blood Glucose/analysis, Body Mass Index, Body Weights and Measures, Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology, Female, Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data, Humans, Hypertension/epidemiology, Lipids/blood, Male, Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data, Middle Aged, Nigeria/epidemiology, Prevalence, Residence Characteristics, Risk Factors, Socioeconomic Factors",
author = "Oguoma, {Victor Maduabuchi} and Nwose, {Ezekiel Uba} and Skinner, {Timothy Chas} and Digban, {Kester Awharentomah} and Onyia, {Innocent Chukwu} and Richards, {Ross Stuart}",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
day = "18",
doi = "10.1186/s12889-015-1709-2",
language = "English",
volume = "15",
pages = "1--16",
journal = "BMC Public Health",
issn = "1471-2458",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population : relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening. / Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi; Nwose, Ezekiel Uba; Skinner, Timothy Chas; Digban, Kester Awharentomah; Onyia, Innocent Chukwu; Richards, Ross Stuart.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 15, No. 1, 397, 18.04.2015, p. 1-16.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among a Nigerian adult population

T2 - relationship with income level and accessibility to CVD risks screening

AU - Oguoma, Victor Maduabuchi

AU - Nwose, Ezekiel Uba

AU - Skinner, Timothy Chas

AU - Digban, Kester Awharentomah

AU - Onyia, Innocent Chukwu

AU - Richards, Ross Stuart

PY - 2015/4/18

Y1 - 2015/4/18

N2 - BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults.METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening.RESULTS: The 422 participants (273 females and 149 males) [corrected] had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance.CONCLUSION: This study has shown that a significant number of modifiable CVD risk factors exist in the rural and urban migrants of an adult Nigerian population. While income level did not affect the CVD risk factor prevalence, it did affect accessibility to CVD risk screening. There is a need for access to diagnosis of modifiable risk factors at all levels of society.

AB - BACKGROUND: In Nigeria, reports on the prevalence of modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors are scarce. In addition, socio-economic status (SES), an important component of the socioeconomic gradient in CVD and its risk factors has not been clearly elucidated. This study sought to assess the prevalence of CVD risk factors and how the difference in prevalence and accessibility to CVD risk screening across income levels and educational backgrounds contributes to disease diagnosis in rural and urban Nigerian adults.METHODS: A cross sectional study was carried out on a sociocultural ethnic group of persons living in rural and urban settings. All participants were aged ≥ 18 years. The WHO STEPS questionnaire was used to document the demographics, history of previous medical check-up or screening, anthropometric and biochemical measurements of the participants. Average income level and educational status were indicators used to assess the impact of SES. Multivariate analyses were performed to assess any difference between the geographical locations and SES indicators, and prevalence of CVD risk factors and access to CVD risk screening.RESULTS: The 422 participants (273 females and 149 males) [corrected] had mean age (± standard deviation) of 38.3 ± 20.5 and 42.9 ± 20.7 years, respectively. Only total cholesterol (p = 0.001), triglyceride (p = 0.005), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (p < 0.0001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.03) and average income rate (p = 0.01) showed significant difference between gender groups. Overall prevalence of prediabetes (4.9%), diabetes (5.4%), hypertension (35.7%), low HDL (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (23.2%), hypercholesterolemia (38.1%) and central obesity of 52.2% was recorded. Except between total cholesterol (p = 0.042) and HDL (p = 0.017), other CVD risk factors did not show a statistical significance across income levels. Participants with 'university and postgraduate education' had higher access to blood pressure and blood glucose screening compared to other educational groups; and this showed a statistical significance.CONCLUSION: This study has shown that a significant number of modifiable CVD risk factors exist in the rural and urban migrants of an adult Nigerian population. While income level did not affect the CVD risk factor prevalence, it did affect accessibility to CVD risk screening. There is a need for access to diagnosis of modifiable risk factors at all levels of society.

KW - Adult

KW - Blood Glucose/analysis

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Body Weights and Measures

KW - Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology

KW - Female

KW - Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data

KW - Humans

KW - Hypertension/epidemiology

KW - Lipids/blood

KW - Male

KW - Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Nigeria/epidemiology

KW - Prevalence

KW - Residence Characteristics

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Socioeconomic Factors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84928533468&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.mendeley.com/catalogue/prevalence-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-among-nigerian-adult-population-relationship-income-l

U2 - 10.1186/s12889-015-1709-2

DO - 10.1186/s12889-015-1709-2

M3 - Article

VL - 15

SP - 1

EP - 16

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

IS - 1

M1 - 397

ER -