Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games

Michael Drew, Nicole Vlahovich, David Hughes, Renee Appaneal, Louise M Burke, Bronwen Lundy, Margot Rogers, Mary Toomey, David Watts, Gregory Lovell, Stephan Praet, Shona L Halson, Candice Colbey, Silvia Manzanero, Marijke Welvaert, Nicholas P West, David B Pyne, Gordon Waddington

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    19 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVE: Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.

    METHODS: Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Multiple illness (case) definitions were applied. ORs and attributable fractions in the population were used. Factor analyses were used to explore the relationships between variables.

    RESULTS: The response rate was of 42% (male, n=47, age 25.8±4.1 years; female, n=85, age 24.3±3.9 years). Low energy availability was associated with sustaining an illness in the previous month (upper respiratory, OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 12). The main factor relating to illness pertained to a combination of anxiety and stress-recovery states (as measured by the REST-Q-52 item). All participants reported at least one episode of illness in the last month (100% prevalence).

    CONCLUSIONS: All participants reported at least one illness symptom in the previous month. Low energy availability was a leading variable associated with illness in Olympic-class athletes. The estimates duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 7 days. Factor analyses show the interdependence of various health domains and support multidisciplinary care.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)47-53
    Number of pages7
    JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
    Volume52
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2018

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    Mental Health
    Sleep
    Athletes
    Statistical Factor Analysis
    Anxiety
    Probiotics
    Sports
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    Depression
    Health
    Population

    Cite this

    Drew, Michael ; Vlahovich, Nicole ; Hughes, David ; Appaneal, Renee ; Burke, Louise M ; Lundy, Bronwen ; Rogers, Margot ; Toomey, Mary ; Watts, David ; Lovell, Gregory ; Praet, Stephan ; Halson, Shona L ; Colbey, Candice ; Manzanero, Silvia ; Welvaert, Marijke ; West, Nicholas P ; Pyne, David B ; Waddington, Gordon. / Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. In: British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018 ; Vol. 52, No. 1. pp. 47-53.
    @article{4021440b63f7446e9dab77b9f3439876,
    title = "Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games",
    abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.METHODS: Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Multiple illness (case) definitions were applied. ORs and attributable fractions in the population were used. Factor analyses were used to explore the relationships between variables.RESULTS: The response rate was of 42{\%} (male, n=47, age 25.8±4.1 years; female, n=85, age 24.3±3.9 years). Low energy availability was associated with sustaining an illness in the previous month (upper respiratory, OR=3.8, 95{\%} CI 1.2 to 12). The main factor relating to illness pertained to a combination of anxiety and stress-recovery states (as measured by the REST-Q-52 item). All participants reported at least one episode of illness in the last month (100{\%} prevalence).CONCLUSIONS: All participants reported at least one illness symptom in the previous month. Low energy availability was a leading variable associated with illness in Olympic-class athletes. The estimates duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 7 days. Factor analyses show the interdependence of various health domains and support multidisciplinary care.",
    keywords = "Journal Article, Anniversaries and Special Events, Prevalence, Cross-Sectional Studies, Fatigue/epidemiology, Humans, Self Report, Male, Mental Health, Young Adult, Sleep, Athletes/psychology, Stress, Psychological, Adult, Female, Surveys and Questionnaires, Anxiety, Health Status",
    author = "Michael Drew and Nicole Vlahovich and David Hughes and Renee Appaneal and Burke, {Louise M} and Bronwen Lundy and Margot Rogers and Mary Toomey and David Watts and Gregory Lovell and Stephan Praet and Halson, {Shona L} and Candice Colbey and Silvia Manzanero and Marijke Welvaert and West, {Nicholas P} and Pyne, {David B} and Gordon Waddington",
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    Drew, M, Vlahovich, N, Hughes, D, Appaneal, R, Burke, LM, Lundy, B, Rogers, M, Toomey, M, Watts, D, Lovell, G, Praet, S, Halson, SL, Colbey, C, Manzanero, S, Welvaert, M, West, NP, Pyne, DB & Waddington, G 2018, 'Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games', British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 47-53. https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098208

    Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. / Drew, Michael; Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David; Appaneal, Renee; Burke, Louise M; Lundy, Bronwen; Rogers, Margot; Toomey, Mary; Watts, David; Lovell, Gregory; Praet, Stephan; Halson, Shona L; Colbey, Candice; Manzanero, Silvia; Welvaert, Marijke; West, Nicholas P; Pyne, David B; Waddington, Gordon.

    In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 1, 01.2018, p. 47-53.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - Prevalence of illness, poor mental health and sleep quality and low energy availability prior to the 2016 Summer Olympic Games

    AU - Drew, Michael

    AU - Vlahovich, Nicole

    AU - Hughes, David

    AU - Appaneal, Renee

    AU - Burke, Louise M

    AU - Lundy, Bronwen

    AU - Rogers, Margot

    AU - Toomey, Mary

    AU - Watts, David

    AU - Lovell, Gregory

    AU - Praet, Stephan

    AU - Halson, Shona L

    AU - Colbey, Candice

    AU - Manzanero, Silvia

    AU - Welvaert, Marijke

    AU - West, Nicholas P

    AU - Pyne, David B

    AU - Waddington, Gordon

    N1 - © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

    PY - 2018/1

    Y1 - 2018/1

    N2 - OBJECTIVE: Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.METHODS: Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Multiple illness (case) definitions were applied. ORs and attributable fractions in the population were used. Factor analyses were used to explore the relationships between variables.RESULTS: The response rate was of 42% (male, n=47, age 25.8±4.1 years; female, n=85, age 24.3±3.9 years). Low energy availability was associated with sustaining an illness in the previous month (upper respiratory, OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 12). The main factor relating to illness pertained to a combination of anxiety and stress-recovery states (as measured by the REST-Q-52 item). All participants reported at least one episode of illness in the last month (100% prevalence).CONCLUSIONS: All participants reported at least one illness symptom in the previous month. Low energy availability was a leading variable associated with illness in Olympic-class athletes. The estimates duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 7 days. Factor analyses show the interdependence of various health domains and support multidisciplinary care.

    AB - OBJECTIVE: Establish the prevalence of illness symptoms, poor sleep quality, poor mental health symptoms, low energy availability and stress-recovery state in an Olympic cohort late in the 3 months prior to the Summer Olympic Games.METHODS: Olympic athletes (n=317) from 11 sports were invited to complete questionnaires administered 3 months before the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. These questionnaires included the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire, Perceived Stress Scale, Dispositional Resilience Scale, Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q-52 item), Low Energy Availability in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and custom-made questionnaires on probiotic usage and travel. Multiple illness (case) definitions were applied. ORs and attributable fractions in the population were used. Factor analyses were used to explore the relationships between variables.RESULTS: The response rate was of 42% (male, n=47, age 25.8±4.1 years; female, n=85, age 24.3±3.9 years). Low energy availability was associated with sustaining an illness in the previous month (upper respiratory, OR=3.8, 95% CI 1.2 to 12). The main factor relating to illness pertained to a combination of anxiety and stress-recovery states (as measured by the REST-Q-52 item). All participants reported at least one episode of illness in the last month (100% prevalence).CONCLUSIONS: All participants reported at least one illness symptom in the previous month. Low energy availability was a leading variable associated with illness in Olympic-class athletes. The estimates duration of symptoms ranged from 2 to 7 days. Factor analyses show the interdependence of various health domains and support multidisciplinary care.

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    KW - Self Report

    KW - Male

    KW - Mental Health

    KW - Young Adult

    KW - Sleep

    KW - Athletes/psychology

    KW - Stress, Psychological

    KW - Adult

    KW - Female

    KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

    KW - Anxiety

    KW - Health Status

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