Purpose: To evaluate the 2-year changes in myopic maculopathy and its associations in highly myopic eyes.
Methods: This was a longitudinal, observational cohort study involving 657 Chinese participants with bilateral high myopia (≤ -6.00 diopters spherical power), who were followed for 2 years. The worst eye of each participant was considered for the analysis. Myopic maculopathy was graded based on fundus photographs, using the International Photographic Classification and Grading System for Myopic Maculopathy.
Results: The mean baseline age was 21.6 ± 12.2 years (range, 6.8-69.7 years). Myopic maculopathy progressed in 97 (14.8%) of 657 eyes, of which 24 eyes progressed to a higher category of myopic maculopathy, including from no maculopathy to tessellated fundus in 17 eyes, from tessellated fundus to diffuse atrophy in 6 eyes, and from diffuse to patchy atrophy in 1 eye. Among 122 lesion changes identified, the most common changes were enlargement of diffuse atrophy (n = 50, 41.0%), appearance of lacquer cracks (n = 28, 23.0%), enlargement of patchy atrophy (n = 10, 8.2%) and development of additional lacquer cracks (n = 7, 5.8%). In addition, we identified 1 eye with enlargement of a Fuch's spot, and 1 eye with active choroidal neovascularization. In multiple logistic regression analysis, myopic maculopathy progression was associated with older age, longer axial length, greater change in myopic spherical equivalent and more severe myopic maculopathy at baseline.
Conclusions: Myopic maculopathy progressed in approximately 15% of highly myopic eyes over a 2-year period. Further studies with longer follow up periods are required to confirm identified risk factors for progression.