Lagoviruses belong to the Caliciviridae family. They were first recognized as highly pathogenic viruses of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and European brown hare (Lepus europaeus) that emerged in the 1970–1980s, namely, rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) and European brown hare syndrome virus (EBHSV), according to the host species from which they had been first detected. However, the diversity of lagoviruses has recently expanded to include new related viruses with varying pathogenicity, geographic distribution and host ranges. Together with the frequent recombination observed amongst circulating viruses, there is a clear need to establish precise guidelines for classifying and naming lagovirus strains. Therefore, here we propose a new nomenclature based on phylogenetic relationships. In this new nomenclature, a single species of lagovirus would be recognized and called Lagovirus europaeus. The species would be divided into two genogroups that correspond to RHDV- and EBHSV-related viruses, respectively. Genogroups could be subdivided into genotypes, which could themselves be subdivided into phylogenetically well-supported variants. Based on available sequences, pairwise distance cutoffs have been defined, but with the accumulation of new sequences these cutoffs may need to be revised. We propose that an international working group could coordinate the nomenclature of lagoviruses and any proposals for revision.