Protein intake and physical activity are associated with body composition in individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency

Rati Jani, Kathryn Coakley, Teresa Douglas, Rani Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Determine whether body composition as it relates to dietary protein in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is associated with genotype, dietary factors, and lifestyle choices. METHODS: We examined associations between protein intake (intact and medical foods: MF) and body composition in PAH-deficient patients along with, physical activity, and genotype. Protein intakes (total, intact, and MF) were analysed from three-day food records with Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) in 59 children and 27 adults (N=86, median age=16.0years). The severity of PAH deficiency was classified using the genotype assigned value method (AV sum). Physical activity was assessed using a study-developed question (light vs. intense activity). Body composition was measured by DXA, including android:gynoid ratio (A:G), fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and FMI:FFMI ratio.

RESULTS: High intact protein intake was associated with high FFMI (rs=0.75, p=0.008) and low FMI:FFMI (rs=-0.59, p=0.04) in adults. Only in children, MF protein (rs=0.38, p=0.04) was directly proportional to FFMI. Median intact protein intakes of adults (25.1 vs. 9.9g/d, p<0.001) and children (11 vs. 6g/d, p<0.001) were higher than prescribed. Only in adults, the actual median MF protein intake was lower than prescribed (53 vs. 60g/d, p=0.03). In adults and children, light activity was associated with higher fat mass indices compared to intense activity (adults: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.001, children: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.007; FMI β=2.1, p=0.01; A:G β=1.1, p=0.04). All associations remained significant after covariate adjustment. Genotype was not associated with body composition.  CONCLUSIONS: Although fat-free mass in adults was positively associated with intact protein intake, it should be consumed as prescribed per individual tolerance to maintain plasma Phe concentrations within treatment range. In children, total protein maximized with MF should be encouraged to promote lean mass. Nutrition counselling could be complemented with physical activity recommendations for optimal clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)104-110
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular Genetics and Metabolism
Volume121
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2017
Externally publishedYes

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Phenylalanine Hydroxylase
Phenylketonurias
Body Composition
Fats
Exercise
Chemical analysis
Proteins
Genotype
Nutrition
Social Adjustment
Light
Food
Dietary Proteins

Cite this

@article{e449f1396b094ea3a2c725dacf42173b,
title = "Protein intake and physical activity are associated with body composition in individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Determine whether body composition as it relates to dietary protein in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is associated with genotype, dietary factors, and lifestyle choices. METHODS: We examined associations between protein intake (intact and medical foods: MF) and body composition in PAH-deficient patients along with, physical activity, and genotype. Protein intakes (total, intact, and MF) were analysed from three-day food records with Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) in 59 children and 27 adults (N=86, median age=16.0years). The severity of PAH deficiency was classified using the genotype assigned value method (AV sum). Physical activity was assessed using a study-developed question (light vs. intense activity). Body composition was measured by DXA, including android:gynoid ratio (A:G), fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and FMI:FFMI ratio.RESULTS: High intact protein intake was associated with high FFMI (rs=0.75, p=0.008) and low FMI:FFMI (rs=-0.59, p=0.04) in adults. Only in children, MF protein (rs=0.38, p=0.04) was directly proportional to FFMI. Median intact protein intakes of adults (25.1 vs. 9.9g/d, p<0.001) and children (11 vs. 6g/d, p<0.001) were higher than prescribed. Only in adults, the actual median MF protein intake was lower than prescribed (53 vs. 60g/d, p=0.03). In adults and children, light activity was associated with higher fat mass indices compared to intense activity (adults: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.001, children: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.007; FMI β=2.1, p=0.01; A:G β=1.1, p=0.04). All associations remained significant after covariate adjustment. Genotype was not associated with body composition.  CONCLUSIONS: Although fat-free mass in adults was positively associated with intact protein intake, it should be consumed as prescribed per individual tolerance to maintain plasma Phe concentrations within treatment range. In children, total protein maximized with MF should be encouraged to promote lean mass. Nutrition counselling could be complemented with physical activity recommendations for optimal clinical outcomes.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Body Composition, Body Mass Index, Child, Child, Preschool, Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage, Exercise, Female, Genotype, Humans, Life Style, Male, Middle Aged, Nutrition Therapy, Obesity, Phenylketonurias/genetics, Young Adult",
author = "Rati Jani and Kathryn Coakley and Teresa Douglas and Rani Singh",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2017",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.04.012",
language = "English",
volume = "121",
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Protein intake and physical activity are associated with body composition in individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency. / Jani, Rati; Coakley, Kathryn; Douglas, Teresa; Singh, Rani.

In: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Vol. 121, No. 2, 06.2017, p. 104-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Protein intake and physical activity are associated with body composition in individuals with phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency

AU - Jani, Rati

AU - Coakley, Kathryn

AU - Douglas, Teresa

AU - Singh, Rani

N1 - Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2017/6

Y1 - 2017/6

N2 - OBJECTIVE: Determine whether body composition as it relates to dietary protein in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is associated with genotype, dietary factors, and lifestyle choices. METHODS: We examined associations between protein intake (intact and medical foods: MF) and body composition in PAH-deficient patients along with, physical activity, and genotype. Protein intakes (total, intact, and MF) were analysed from three-day food records with Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) in 59 children and 27 adults (N=86, median age=16.0years). The severity of PAH deficiency was classified using the genotype assigned value method (AV sum). Physical activity was assessed using a study-developed question (light vs. intense activity). Body composition was measured by DXA, including android:gynoid ratio (A:G), fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and FMI:FFMI ratio.RESULTS: High intact protein intake was associated with high FFMI (rs=0.75, p=0.008) and low FMI:FFMI (rs=-0.59, p=0.04) in adults. Only in children, MF protein (rs=0.38, p=0.04) was directly proportional to FFMI. Median intact protein intakes of adults (25.1 vs. 9.9g/d, p<0.001) and children (11 vs. 6g/d, p<0.001) were higher than prescribed. Only in adults, the actual median MF protein intake was lower than prescribed (53 vs. 60g/d, p=0.03). In adults and children, light activity was associated with higher fat mass indices compared to intense activity (adults: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.001, children: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.007; FMI β=2.1, p=0.01; A:G β=1.1, p=0.04). All associations remained significant after covariate adjustment. Genotype was not associated with body composition.  CONCLUSIONS: Although fat-free mass in adults was positively associated with intact protein intake, it should be consumed as prescribed per individual tolerance to maintain plasma Phe concentrations within treatment range. In children, total protein maximized with MF should be encouraged to promote lean mass. Nutrition counselling could be complemented with physical activity recommendations for optimal clinical outcomes.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Determine whether body composition as it relates to dietary protein in patients with phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) deficiency is associated with genotype, dietary factors, and lifestyle choices. METHODS: We examined associations between protein intake (intact and medical foods: MF) and body composition in PAH-deficient patients along with, physical activity, and genotype. Protein intakes (total, intact, and MF) were analysed from three-day food records with Nutrition Data System for Research (NDSR) in 59 children and 27 adults (N=86, median age=16.0years). The severity of PAH deficiency was classified using the genotype assigned value method (AV sum). Physical activity was assessed using a study-developed question (light vs. intense activity). Body composition was measured by DXA, including android:gynoid ratio (A:G), fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and FMI:FFMI ratio.RESULTS: High intact protein intake was associated with high FFMI (rs=0.75, p=0.008) and low FMI:FFMI (rs=-0.59, p=0.04) in adults. Only in children, MF protein (rs=0.38, p=0.04) was directly proportional to FFMI. Median intact protein intakes of adults (25.1 vs. 9.9g/d, p<0.001) and children (11 vs. 6g/d, p<0.001) were higher than prescribed. Only in adults, the actual median MF protein intake was lower than prescribed (53 vs. 60g/d, p=0.03). In adults and children, light activity was associated with higher fat mass indices compared to intense activity (adults: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.001, children: FMI:FFMI: β=1.1, p=0.007; FMI β=2.1, p=0.01; A:G β=1.1, p=0.04). All associations remained significant after covariate adjustment. Genotype was not associated with body composition.  CONCLUSIONS: Although fat-free mass in adults was positively associated with intact protein intake, it should be consumed as prescribed per individual tolerance to maintain plasma Phe concentrations within treatment range. In children, total protein maximized with MF should be encouraged to promote lean mass. Nutrition counselling could be complemented with physical activity recommendations for optimal clinical outcomes.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Body Composition

KW - Body Mass Index

KW - Child

KW - Child, Preschool

KW - Dietary Proteins/administration & dosage

KW - Exercise

KW - Female

KW - Genotype

KW - Humans

KW - Life Style

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Nutrition Therapy

KW - Obesity

KW - Phenylketonurias/genetics

KW - Young Adult

U2 - 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.04.012

DO - 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.04.012

M3 - Article

VL - 121

SP - 104

EP - 110

JO - Biochemical and Molecular Medicine

JF - Biochemical and Molecular Medicine

SN - 1096-7192

IS - 2

ER -