Pseudo-CT Generation for MRI-Only Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning: Comparison Among Patch-Based, Atlas-Based, and Bulk Density Methods

Axel Largent, Anaïs Barateau, Jean Claude Nunes, Caroline Lafond, Peter B. Greer, Jason A. Dowling, Hervé Saint-Jalmes, Oscar Acosta, Renaud de Crevoisier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Methods have been recently developed to generate pseudo–computed tomography (pCT) for dose calculation in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–only radiation therapy. This study aimed to propose an original nonlocal mean patch-based method (PBM) and to compare this PBM to an atlas-based method (ABM) and to a bulk density method (BDM) for prostate MRI-only radiation therapy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients received a volumetric modulated arc therapy for prostate cancer. In addition to the planning computed tomography (CT) scans, T2-weighted MRI scans were acquired. pCTs were generated from MRIs using 3 methods: an original nonlocal mean PBM, ABM, and BDM. The PBM was performed using feature extraction and approximate nearest neighbor search in a training cohort. The PBM accuracy was evaluated in a validation cohort by using imaging and dosimetric endpoints. Imaging endpoints included mean absolute error and mean error between Hounsfield units of the pCT and the reference CT (CTref). Dosimetric endpoints were based on dose-volume histograms calculated from the CTref and the pCTs for various volumes of interest and on 3-dimensional gamma analyses. The PBM uncertainties were compared with those of the ABM and BDM. Results: The mean absolute error and mean error obtained from the PBM were 41.1 and –1.1 Hounsfield units. The PBM dose-volume histogram differences were 0.7% for prostate planning target volume V95%, 0.5% for rectum V70Gy, and 0.2% for bladder V50Gy. Compared with ABM and BDM, PBM provided significantly lower dose uncertainties for the prostate planning target volume (70-78 Gy), the rectum (8.5-29 Gy, 40-48 Gy, and 61-73 Gy), and the bladder (12-78 Gy). The PBM mean gamma pass rate (99.5%) was significantly higher than that of ABM (94.9%) or BDM (96.1%). Conclusions: The proposed PBM provides low uncertainties with dose planned on CTref. These uncertainties were smaller than those of ABM and BDM and are unlikely to be clinically significant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)479-490
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019
Externally publishedYes


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