Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: Cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community

Jean Moubarac, Margaret CARGO, Olivier Receveur, Mark DANIEL

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Abstract

Objective: To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic MiddleEastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants: 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/ day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results: Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (> 12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5g/ day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions: The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Open
Volume3
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013
Externally publishedYes

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Psychology
Linear Models
Sleep
Body Mass Index
Cross-Sectional Studies
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Food

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@article{de1af860c7414772b200d5916a4f107f,
title = "Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: Cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community",
abstract = "Objective: To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic MiddleEastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants: 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/ day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results: Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5{\%} having excessive scores (> 12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8{\%} having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5g/ day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions: The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship",
author = "Jean Moubarac and Margaret CARGO and Olivier Receveur and Mark DANIEL",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychological distress mediates the association between daytime sleepiness and consumption of sweetened products: Cross-sectional findings in a Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community

AU - Moubarac, Jean

AU - CARGO, Margaret

AU - Receveur, Olivier

AU - DANIEL, Mark

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - Objective: To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic MiddleEastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants: 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/ day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results: Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (> 12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5g/ day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions: The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship

AB - Objective: To examine the associations between consumption of sweetened products, daytime sleepiness (DS) and psychological distress (PD) in a Catholic MiddleEastern Canadian community, and to test the hypothesis that the association between DS and consumption of sweetened products is mediated by PD. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: A Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community. Participants: 186 men and women aged between 18 and 60 years. Primary and secondary outcome measures: Sweetened product consumption was measured using a food frequency questionnaire (total sugars/ day). DS and PD were measured using standardised questionnaires. The generalised linear model was used to estimate associations between sweetened product consumption, age, sex, self-reported body mass index, DS and PD. Baron and Kenny's four-step approach in addition to the Sobel test were used to establish mediation. Results: Average DS score was 8.2 (SD=4.5) with 19.5% having excessive scores (> 12). Mean PD score was 20.8 (SD=6.2) with 11.8% having high distress scores. Average consumption of sweetened products was 15.5g/ day (SD=13.9). Baron and Kenny's three steps to establish partial mediation were confirmed. First, DS was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.03). Second, DS and PD were correlated (r=0.197; p<0.04). Third, PD was associated with consumption of sweetened products (p<0.01) when both PD and DS were entered as predictors in a multivariate regression. However, Baron and Kenny's fourth step to establish complete mediation was not met. The effect of DS on consumption of sweetened products controlling for PD was reduced, but it was not zero. Finally, the Sobel test was significant (2.14; p<0.03). Conclusions: The association between DS and consumption of sweetened products in the Catholic Middle-Eastern Canadian community is partially mediated by psychological distress. Further work should test this mediation relationship in larger samples and verify the potential effects of other sleep variables in this relationship

U2 - 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002298

DO - 10.1136/bmjopen-2012-002298

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - 1

EP - 9

JO - BMJ Open

JF - BMJ Open

SN - 2044-6055

IS - 2

ER -