Reflections on Inclusion: Students with Visual Impairment in Bhutan

David Paterson, Rinchen Dorji, Judith Miller, Lorraine Graham, Jeff Bailey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This study provides a retrospective view of past students with visual impairment (VI) regarding their experience in inclusive settings in the Bhutanese education system. Twelve past students (10 males and 2 females) with VI completed an online survey via Qualtrics. The survey consisted of a 37-item survey termed the Bhutanese Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education – Past Students (BATIE-PS). Eight open-ended questions were also included in the survey, which allowed the participants to elaborate on their experience and views regarding inclusive education. This paper relates to participant experiences therefore, only responses to the open-ended questions are reported. Findings included the benefits of being able to make friends with sighted students, the opportunity to learn and interact with a wider circle of students, gaining broader perspectives, and developing self-confidence to manage their lives independently. The study also revealed that the principals’ and teachers’ lack of knowledge and training, limited resources, inaccessible infrastructure, social stigma, negative perspectives and inadequate education regarding disability and inclusive education were some of the barriers that needed to be addressed for inclusive education to be successful.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3-23
Number of pages21
JournalAsian Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020


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