Regulatory Pluralism and Regulatory Mix

Neil Gunningham , Darren Sinclair

Research output: A Conference proceeding or a Chapter in BookEntry for encyclopedia/dictionarypeer-review


Smart Regulation embraces complementary combinations of environmental instruments tailored to specific policy circumstances. It seeks to build on the concept of an enforcement pyramid, that is at the core of responsive regulation, by engaging government as well as business and other third parties in the regulatory process. As such, it canvasses a range of environmental instruments, including information, self-regulation, co-regulation, economic instruments, as well as command and control regulation. The use and application of various instrument combinations and regulatory actors are governed by a set of regulatory design principles that can adapt to different environmental imperatives and circumstances, and aim to provide for better regulatory outcomes. In this regard, complementary combinations of instruments are key. The principles of Smart Regulation are pertinent today where governments confront complex environmental issues, and yet appear unable or unwilling to produce adequate regulatory responses.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEncyclopedia of Environmental Law Volume VII: Human Rights and the Environment
EditorsMichael Faure
Place of PublicationUnited Kingdom
PublisherEdward Elgar Publishing
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9781785369520
ISBN (Print)9781786436986
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jun 2020


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