Aim. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between maximal aerobic capacity (V O 2 m a x) and repeated sprint ability (RSA) in a group of professional soccer players. Methods. Forty-one professional soccer players (age 23 ± 4 yrs, height 180.0 ± 5.3 cm, weight 79.6 ± 5.3 kg) were required to perform tests to assess RSA and V O 2 m a x on two separate days with at least 48 hr rest between testing sessions. Each player performed a treadmill test to determine their V O 2 m a x and a test for RSA involving the players completing 6 × 40 m sprints (turn after 20 m) with 20 s active recovery between each sprint. Results. There was a significant negative correlation between body mass normalised V O 2 m a x and mean sprint time (R S A m e a n) (r = - 0.655; P <0.01) and total sprint time (R S A t o t a l) (r = - 0.591, P <0.01). Conclusion. Results of the current study indicate that V O 2 m a x is one important factor aiding soccer players in the recovery from repeated sprint type activities. © 2013 Rhys M. Jones et al.