A common theme in the evolution of sex chromosomes is the massive loss of genes on the sex-specific chromosome (Y or W), leading to a gene imbalance between males (XY) and females (XX) in a male heterogametic species, or between ZZ and ZW in a female heterogametic species. Different mechanisms have evolved to compensate for this difference in dosage of X-borne genes between sexes. In therian mammals, one of the X chromosomes is inactivated, whereas bird dosage compensation is partial and gene-specific. In therian mammals, hallmarks of the inactive X are monoallelic gene expression, late DNA replication and chromatin condensation. Platypuses have five pairs of X chromosomes in females and five X and fiveY chromosomes in males. Gene xpression analysis suggests a more bird-like partial and gene-specific dosage compensation mechanism. We investigated replication timing and chromosome condensation of three of the five X chromosomes in female platypus. Our data suggest synchronous replication of X-specific regions on X1, X3 and X5 but show significantly different condensation between homologues for X3 only, and not for X1 or X5. We discuss these results in relation to recent gene expression analysis of X-linked genes, which together give us insights into possible mechanisms of dosage compensation in platypus.
Ho, K., Deakin, J., Wright, M., Marshall Graves, J., & Grutzner, F. (2009). Replication asynchrony and differential condensation of X chromosomes in female platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). Reproduction, Fertility and Development, 21, 952-963. https://doi.org/10.1071/RD09099