Reproducibility of performance changes to simulated live high/train low altitude

Eileen Robertson, Philo SAUNDERS, David Pyne, R Aughey, Judith Anson, Christopher Gore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Elite athletes often undertake multiple altitude exposures within and between training years in an attempt to improve sea level performance. Purpose: To quantify the reproducibility of responses to live high/train low (LHTL) altitude exposure in the same group of athletes. Methods: Sixteen highly trained runners with maximal aerobic power (V˙ O2max) of 73.1 T 4.6 and 64.4 T 3.2 mLIkgj1Iminj1 (mean T SD) for males and females, respectively, completed 2 3-wk blocks of simulated LHTL (14 hIdj1, 3000 m) or resided near sea level (600 m) in a controlled study design. Changes in the 4.5-km time trial performance and physiological measures including V˙ O2max, running economy and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed. Results: Time trial performance showed small and variable changes after each 3-wk altitude block in both the LHTL (mean [T90% confidence limits]: j1.4% [T1.1%] and 0.7% [T1.3%]) and the control (0.5% [T1.5%] and j0.7% [T0.8%]) groups. The LHTL group demonstrated reproducible improvements in V˙ O2max (2.1% [T2.1%] and 2.1% [T3.9%]) and Hbmass (2.8% [T2.1%] and 2.7% [T1.8%]) after each 3-wk block. Compared with those in the control group, the runners in the LHTL group were substantially faster after the first 3-wk block (LHTL j control = j1.9% [T1.8%]) and had substantially higher Hbmass after the second 3-wk block (4.2% [T2.1%]). There was no substantial difference in the change in mean V˙ O2max between the groups after the first (1.2% [T3.3%]) or second 3-wk block (1.4% [T4.6%]). Conclusions: Three-week LHTL altitude exposure can induce reproducible mean improvements in V˙ O2max and Hbmass in highly trained runners, but changes in time trial performance seem to be more variable. Competitive performance is dependent not only on improvements in physiological capacities that underpin performance but also on a complex interaction of many factors including fitness, fatigue, and motivation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-401
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume42
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

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Hemoglobins
Oceans and Seas
Athletes
Fatigue
Control Groups

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Robertson, Eileen ; SAUNDERS, Philo ; Pyne, David ; Aughey, R ; Anson, Judith ; Gore, Christopher. / Reproducibility of performance changes to simulated live high/train low altitude. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2010 ; Vol. 42, No. 2. pp. 394-401.
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title = "Reproducibility of performance changes to simulated live high/train low altitude",
abstract = "Elite athletes often undertake multiple altitude exposures within and between training years in an attempt to improve sea level performance. Purpose: To quantify the reproducibility of responses to live high/train low (LHTL) altitude exposure in the same group of athletes. Methods: Sixteen highly trained runners with maximal aerobic power (V˙ O2max) of 73.1 T 4.6 and 64.4 T 3.2 mLIkgj1Iminj1 (mean T SD) for males and females, respectively, completed 2 3-wk blocks of simulated LHTL (14 hIdj1, 3000 m) or resided near sea level (600 m) in a controlled study design. Changes in the 4.5-km time trial performance and physiological measures including V˙ O2max, running economy and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed. Results: Time trial performance showed small and variable changes after each 3-wk altitude block in both the LHTL (mean [T90{\%} confidence limits]: j1.4{\%} [T1.1{\%}] and 0.7{\%} [T1.3{\%}]) and the control (0.5{\%} [T1.5{\%}] and j0.7{\%} [T0.8{\%}]) groups. The LHTL group demonstrated reproducible improvements in V˙ O2max (2.1{\%} [T2.1{\%}] and 2.1{\%} [T3.9{\%}]) and Hbmass (2.8{\%} [T2.1{\%}] and 2.7{\%} [T1.8{\%}]) after each 3-wk block. Compared with those in the control group, the runners in the LHTL group were substantially faster after the first 3-wk block (LHTL j control = j1.9{\%} [T1.8{\%}]) and had substantially higher Hbmass after the second 3-wk block (4.2{\%} [T2.1{\%}]). There was no substantial difference in the change in mean V˙ O2max between the groups after the first (1.2{\%} [T3.3{\%}]) or second 3-wk block (1.4{\%} [T4.6{\%}]). Conclusions: Three-week LHTL altitude exposure can induce reproducible mean improvements in V˙ O2max and Hbmass in highly trained runners, but changes in time trial performance seem to be more variable. Competitive performance is dependent not only on improvements in physiological capacities that underpin performance but also on a complex interaction of many factors including fitness, fatigue, and motivation.",
author = "Eileen Robertson and Philo SAUNDERS and David Pyne and R Aughey and Judith Anson and Christopher Gore",
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Reproducibility of performance changes to simulated live high/train low altitude. / Robertson, Eileen; SAUNDERS, Philo; Pyne, David; Aughey, R; Anson, Judith; Gore, Christopher.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2010, p. 394-401.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reproducibility of performance changes to simulated live high/train low altitude

AU - Robertson, Eileen

AU - SAUNDERS, Philo

AU - Pyne, David

AU - Aughey, R

AU - Anson, Judith

AU - Gore, Christopher

PY - 2010

Y1 - 2010

N2 - Elite athletes often undertake multiple altitude exposures within and between training years in an attempt to improve sea level performance. Purpose: To quantify the reproducibility of responses to live high/train low (LHTL) altitude exposure in the same group of athletes. Methods: Sixteen highly trained runners with maximal aerobic power (V˙ O2max) of 73.1 T 4.6 and 64.4 T 3.2 mLIkgj1Iminj1 (mean T SD) for males and females, respectively, completed 2 3-wk blocks of simulated LHTL (14 hIdj1, 3000 m) or resided near sea level (600 m) in a controlled study design. Changes in the 4.5-km time trial performance and physiological measures including V˙ O2max, running economy and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed. Results: Time trial performance showed small and variable changes after each 3-wk altitude block in both the LHTL (mean [T90% confidence limits]: j1.4% [T1.1%] and 0.7% [T1.3%]) and the control (0.5% [T1.5%] and j0.7% [T0.8%]) groups. The LHTL group demonstrated reproducible improvements in V˙ O2max (2.1% [T2.1%] and 2.1% [T3.9%]) and Hbmass (2.8% [T2.1%] and 2.7% [T1.8%]) after each 3-wk block. Compared with those in the control group, the runners in the LHTL group were substantially faster after the first 3-wk block (LHTL j control = j1.9% [T1.8%]) and had substantially higher Hbmass after the second 3-wk block (4.2% [T2.1%]). There was no substantial difference in the change in mean V˙ O2max between the groups after the first (1.2% [T3.3%]) or second 3-wk block (1.4% [T4.6%]). Conclusions: Three-week LHTL altitude exposure can induce reproducible mean improvements in V˙ O2max and Hbmass in highly trained runners, but changes in time trial performance seem to be more variable. Competitive performance is dependent not only on improvements in physiological capacities that underpin performance but also on a complex interaction of many factors including fitness, fatigue, and motivation.

AB - Elite athletes often undertake multiple altitude exposures within and between training years in an attempt to improve sea level performance. Purpose: To quantify the reproducibility of responses to live high/train low (LHTL) altitude exposure in the same group of athletes. Methods: Sixteen highly trained runners with maximal aerobic power (V˙ O2max) of 73.1 T 4.6 and 64.4 T 3.2 mLIkgj1Iminj1 (mean T SD) for males and females, respectively, completed 2 3-wk blocks of simulated LHTL (14 hIdj1, 3000 m) or resided near sea level (600 m) in a controlled study design. Changes in the 4.5-km time trial performance and physiological measures including V˙ O2max, running economy and hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) were assessed. Results: Time trial performance showed small and variable changes after each 3-wk altitude block in both the LHTL (mean [T90% confidence limits]: j1.4% [T1.1%] and 0.7% [T1.3%]) and the control (0.5% [T1.5%] and j0.7% [T0.8%]) groups. The LHTL group demonstrated reproducible improvements in V˙ O2max (2.1% [T2.1%] and 2.1% [T3.9%]) and Hbmass (2.8% [T2.1%] and 2.7% [T1.8%]) after each 3-wk block. Compared with those in the control group, the runners in the LHTL group were substantially faster after the first 3-wk block (LHTL j control = j1.9% [T1.8%]) and had substantially higher Hbmass after the second 3-wk block (4.2% [T2.1%]). There was no substantial difference in the change in mean V˙ O2max between the groups after the first (1.2% [T3.3%]) or second 3-wk block (1.4% [T4.6%]). Conclusions: Three-week LHTL altitude exposure can induce reproducible mean improvements in V˙ O2max and Hbmass in highly trained runners, but changes in time trial performance seem to be more variable. Competitive performance is dependent not only on improvements in physiological capacities that underpin performance but also on a complex interaction of many factors including fitness, fatigue, and motivation.

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DO - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181b34b57

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SP - 394

EP - 401

JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

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ER -