Health care systems depend on viable health professional workforces. Nurse workforce projections for Australia indicate that by 2030 the demand for nurses will exceed supply. Retaining nurses is an ongoing problem both in Australia and globally. This study investigates nurse self-concept, practice environment and resilience, and how these three factors influence the retention of early career registered nurses (ECRNs). ECRNs are defined as RNs in the first 5 years of practice post-graduation. The researchers used a cross-sectional design for the study. Survey responses were elicited from 161 ECRNs in one Australian hospital and health service using four survey instruments: The Nurse Self-Concept Questionnaire, the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale and the Nurse Retention Index. Study findings demonstrate correlations between ECRN retention intentions and nurse self-concept, practice environment and resilience. The significance of these factors at different points during the first five years of practice emphasises the need for judicious and well-timed use of strategies to positively influence nurse retention. Longitudinal research investigating the significance of influencing factors over time would further contribute to our understanding of ECRN retention intentions.