Calcium release from internal stores is a quintessential event in excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and skeletal muscle. The ryanodine receptor Ca 2+ release channel is embedded in the internal sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ store, which releases Ca 2+ into the cytoplasm, enabling contraction. Ryanodine receptors form the hub of a macromolecular complex extending from the extracellular space to the sarcoplasmic reticulum lumen. Ryanodine receptor activity is influenced by the integrated effects of associated co-proteins, ions, and post-translational phosphor and redox modifications. In healthy muscle, ryanodine receptors are phosphorylated and redox modified to basal levels, to support cellular function. A pathological increase in the degree of both post-translational modifications disturbs intracellular Ca 2+ signalling, and is implicated in various cardiac and skeletal disorders. This review summarises our current understanding of the mechanisms linking ryanodine receptor post-translational modification to heart failure and skeletal myopathy and highlights the challenges and controversies within the field.
|Number of pages
|International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
|Published - 1 Aug 2018