Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers

Maree Gleeson, Warren A. McDonald, David B. Pyne, Allan W. Cripps, J. Lynn Francis, Peter A. Fricker, Robert L. Clancy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

229 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The effects of exercise on the immune system has been shown to be dependent on the level of fitness of the subjects, the degree of intensity, and the duration of the exercise. A reduction in salivary IgA levels occurs after individual sessions of exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between changes in salivary IgA and training volume, psychological stress, and infection rates in a cohort of 26 elite swimmers over a 7-month training period and to compare the changes with a group of 12 moderately exercising controls. Methods: Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by an electroimmunodiffusion. Exercise gradings were assessed by a standardized aerobic-anaerobic rating system. Psychological stress/anxiety was evaluated by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Infections were physician-verified. Results: Salivary IgA levels showed an inverse correlation with the number of infections in both elite swimmers and moderately exercising control subjects. The pretraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were 4.1% lower for each additional month of training and 5.8% lower for each additional infection. The posttraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were not significantly correlated with infection rates but were 8.5% lower for each additional 1 km swum in a training session and 7.0% lower for each additional month of training. The number of infections observed in the elite swimmers was predicted from regression models by the preseason (P = 0.05) and the mean pretraining salivary IgA levels (P = 0.006). The trends in pretraining salivary IgA levels over the 7-month season, calculated as individual slopes of pretraining IgA levels over time, were also predictive of the number of infections (P = 0.03) in the swimmers. Conclusions: These results indicate that measurement of salivary IgA levels over a training season may be predictive for athletes at risk of infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)67-73
Number of pages7
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume31
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Immunoglobulin A
Infection
Exercise
Psychological Stress
Anxiety
Athletes
Immune System
Physicians
Equipment and Supplies

Cite this

Gleeson, M., McDonald, W. A., Pyne, D. B., Cripps, A. W., Francis, J. L., Fricker, P. A., & Clancy, R. L. (1999). Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 31(1), 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012
Gleeson, Maree ; McDonald, Warren A. ; Pyne, David B. ; Cripps, Allan W. ; Francis, J. Lynn ; Fricker, Peter A. ; Clancy, Robert L. / Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1999 ; Vol. 31, No. 1. pp. 67-73.
@article{1eb484ed55da406e8b0dde2f779c4fba,
title = "Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers",
abstract = "The effects of exercise on the immune system has been shown to be dependent on the level of fitness of the subjects, the degree of intensity, and the duration of the exercise. A reduction in salivary IgA levels occurs after individual sessions of exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between changes in salivary IgA and training volume, psychological stress, and infection rates in a cohort of 26 elite swimmers over a 7-month training period and to compare the changes with a group of 12 moderately exercising controls. Methods: Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by an electroimmunodiffusion. Exercise gradings were assessed by a standardized aerobic-anaerobic rating system. Psychological stress/anxiety was evaluated by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Infections were physician-verified. Results: Salivary IgA levels showed an inverse correlation with the number of infections in both elite swimmers and moderately exercising control subjects. The pretraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were 4.1{\%} lower for each additional month of training and 5.8{\%} lower for each additional infection. The posttraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were not significantly correlated with infection rates but were 8.5{\%} lower for each additional 1 km swum in a training session and 7.0{\%} lower for each additional month of training. The number of infections observed in the elite swimmers was predicted from regression models by the preseason (P = 0.05) and the mean pretraining salivary IgA levels (P = 0.006). The trends in pretraining salivary IgA levels over the 7-month season, calculated as individual slopes of pretraining IgA levels over time, were also predictive of the number of infections (P = 0.03) in the swimmers. Conclusions: These results indicate that measurement of salivary IgA levels over a training season may be predictive for athletes at risk of infection.",
keywords = "Exercise, IgA, Infection, Mucosal, Saliva, Swimming",
author = "Maree Gleeson and McDonald, {Warren A.} and Pyne, {David B.} and Cripps, {Allan W.} and Francis, {J. Lynn} and Fricker, {Peter A.} and Clancy, {Robert L.}",
year = "1999",
doi = "10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012",
language = "English",
volume = "31",
pages = "67--73",
journal = "Medicine Science in Sports Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams and Wilkins",
number = "1",

}

Gleeson, M, McDonald, WA, Pyne, DB, Cripps, AW, Francis, JL, Fricker, PA & Clancy, RL 1999, 'Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 67-73. https://doi.org/10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012

Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers. / Gleeson, Maree; McDonald, Warren A.; Pyne, David B.; Cripps, Allan W.; Francis, J. Lynn; Fricker, Peter A.; Clancy, Robert L.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1999, p. 67-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Salivary IgA levels and infection risk in elite swimmers

AU - Gleeson, Maree

AU - McDonald, Warren A.

AU - Pyne, David B.

AU - Cripps, Allan W.

AU - Francis, J. Lynn

AU - Fricker, Peter A.

AU - Clancy, Robert L.

PY - 1999

Y1 - 1999

N2 - The effects of exercise on the immune system has been shown to be dependent on the level of fitness of the subjects, the degree of intensity, and the duration of the exercise. A reduction in salivary IgA levels occurs after individual sessions of exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between changes in salivary IgA and training volume, psychological stress, and infection rates in a cohort of 26 elite swimmers over a 7-month training period and to compare the changes with a group of 12 moderately exercising controls. Methods: Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by an electroimmunodiffusion. Exercise gradings were assessed by a standardized aerobic-anaerobic rating system. Psychological stress/anxiety was evaluated by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Infections were physician-verified. Results: Salivary IgA levels showed an inverse correlation with the number of infections in both elite swimmers and moderately exercising control subjects. The pretraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were 4.1% lower for each additional month of training and 5.8% lower for each additional infection. The posttraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were not significantly correlated with infection rates but were 8.5% lower for each additional 1 km swum in a training session and 7.0% lower for each additional month of training. The number of infections observed in the elite swimmers was predicted from regression models by the preseason (P = 0.05) and the mean pretraining salivary IgA levels (P = 0.006). The trends in pretraining salivary IgA levels over the 7-month season, calculated as individual slopes of pretraining IgA levels over time, were also predictive of the number of infections (P = 0.03) in the swimmers. Conclusions: These results indicate that measurement of salivary IgA levels over a training season may be predictive for athletes at risk of infection.

AB - The effects of exercise on the immune system has been shown to be dependent on the level of fitness of the subjects, the degree of intensity, and the duration of the exercise. A reduction in salivary IgA levels occurs after individual sessions of exercise. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between changes in salivary IgA and training volume, psychological stress, and infection rates in a cohort of 26 elite swimmers over a 7-month training period and to compare the changes with a group of 12 moderately exercising controls. Methods: Salivary IgA concentrations were measured by an electroimmunodiffusion. Exercise gradings were assessed by a standardized aerobic-anaerobic rating system. Psychological stress/anxiety was evaluated by the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Infections were physician-verified. Results: Salivary IgA levels showed an inverse correlation with the number of infections in both elite swimmers and moderately exercising control subjects. The pretraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were 4.1% lower for each additional month of training and 5.8% lower for each additional infection. The posttraining salivary IgA levels in swimmers were not significantly correlated with infection rates but were 8.5% lower for each additional 1 km swum in a training session and 7.0% lower for each additional month of training. The number of infections observed in the elite swimmers was predicted from regression models by the preseason (P = 0.05) and the mean pretraining salivary IgA levels (P = 0.006). The trends in pretraining salivary IgA levels over the 7-month season, calculated as individual slopes of pretraining IgA levels over time, were also predictive of the number of infections (P = 0.03) in the swimmers. Conclusions: These results indicate that measurement of salivary IgA levels over a training season may be predictive for athletes at risk of infection.

KW - Exercise

KW - IgA

KW - Infection

KW - Mucosal

KW - Saliva

KW - Swimming

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032932369&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012

DO - 10.1097/00005768-199901000-00012

M3 - Article

VL - 31

SP - 67

EP - 73

JO - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

JF - Medicine Science in Sports Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 1

ER -