Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols

Christopher M. Gaviglio, Mark Osborne, Vincent G. Kelly, Liam P Kilduff, Christian J. Cook

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    9 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer’s walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)497-504
    Number of pages8
    JournalEuropean Journal of Sport Science
    Volume15
    Issue number6
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2015

    Cite this

    Gaviglio, Christopher M. ; Osborne, Mark ; Kelly, Vincent G. ; Kilduff, Liam P ; Cook, Christian J. / Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols. In: European Journal of Sport Science. 2015 ; Vol. 15, No. 6. pp. 497-504.
    @article{e1fbe0b2492344f686e04b41904c5319,
    title = "Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols",
    abstract = "This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55{\%} of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55{\%}). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85{\%} 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85{\%}). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer’s walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55{\%} and 3 × 5-85{\%} protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55{\%}, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.",
    keywords = "boxing, resistance training, endocrine response, Strongman, wrestling, Boxing, Resistance training, Wrestling, Endocrine response",
    author = "Gaviglio, {Christopher M.} and Mark Osborne and Kelly, {Vincent G.} and Kilduff, {Liam P} and Cook, {Christian J.}",
    year = "2015",
    doi = "10.1080/17461391.2015.1017012",
    language = "English",
    volume = "15",
    pages = "497--504",
    journal = "European Journal of Sport Science",
    issn = "1536-7290",
    publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
    number = "6",

    }

    Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols. / Gaviglio, Christopher M.; Osborne, Mark; Kelly, Vincent G.; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J.

    In: European Journal of Sport Science, Vol. 15, No. 6, 2015, p. 497-504.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Salivary testosterone and cortisol responses to four different rugby training exercise protocols

    AU - Gaviglio, Christopher M.

    AU - Osborne, Mark

    AU - Kelly, Vincent G.

    AU - Kilduff, Liam P

    AU - Cook, Christian J.

    PY - 2015

    Y1 - 2015

    N2 - This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer’s walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

    AB - This study assessed the acute response of salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations to four exercise protocols in 27 elite male rugby players. Each athlete completed four protocols in random order on separate in-season weeks. Two protocols were resistance training based consisting of four exercises (high pull, bench press, squat and chin-ups/prone row): Protocol 1 consisted of 5 sets of 15 repetitions at 55% of 1 repetition maximum (1 RM) with 1-minute rest (5 × 15-55%). Protocol 2 consisted of three sets of five repetitions at 85% 1 RM with 2-minute rest (3 × 5-85%). Protocol 3 was a strongman (STRNG) session consisting of three stations within a circuit of exercises that included exercises such as battling ropes, prowler push, farmer’s walk and tyre flips. Protocol 4 was based on boxing and wrestling inspired exercises (combative - COMB). Salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations were measured before (PRE) and immediately after exercise (POST). Testosterone did not significantly change as a result of any intervention, whereas cortisol declined and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio increased significantly in both the 5 × 15-55% and 3 × 5-85% protocol. When results were retrospectively grouped and analysed according to the protocol that demonstrated the greatest absolute testosterone response, significant (P < 0.01) increases for the 5 × 15-55%, STRNG and COMB protocols were observed. The individualised hormone response to exercise observed in this study highlights the importance of recognising a protocol-dependent approach to training athletes. Furthermore this study also highlights a potential usefulness of employing STRNG and COMB training protocols as an alternative stimulus to resistance training.

    KW - boxing

    KW - resistance training

    KW - endocrine response

    KW - Strongman

    KW - wrestling

    KW - Boxing

    KW - Resistance training

    KW - Wrestling

    KW - Endocrine response

    UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84955177625&partnerID=8YFLogxK

    UR - http://www.mendeley.com/research/salivary-testosterone-cortisol-responses-four-different-rugby-training-exercise-protocols

    U2 - 10.1080/17461391.2015.1017012

    DO - 10.1080/17461391.2015.1017012

    M3 - Article

    VL - 15

    SP - 497

    EP - 504

    JO - European Journal of Sport Science

    JF - European Journal of Sport Science

    SN - 1536-7290

    IS - 6

    ER -