Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population

Michael P. Ward, Brendan D. Cowled, Francesca Galea, M. Graeme Garner, Shawn W. Laffan, Ian Marsh, Katherine Negus, Stephen SARRE, Andrew P. Woolnough

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    Abstract

    Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population’s breeding season (38% of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35% were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3% (95% CI 32.1–40.7%), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9% (95% CI, 9.4–15.0%). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified – 29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples – however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p <0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)921-929
    Number of pages9
    JournalVeterinary Microbiology
    Volume162
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    Salmonella Infections
    salmonellosis
    Swine
    Salmonella
    swine
    lymph nodes
    Lymph Nodes
    Population
    sampling
    Livestock
    livestock
    grazing
    Salmonella enterica
    Salmonella typhimurium
    mixed infection
    Salmonella Typhimurium
    Breeding
    age structure
    piglets
    breeding season

    Cite this

    Ward, M. P., Cowled, B. D., Galea, F., Garner, M. G., Laffan, S. W., Marsh, I., ... Woolnough, A. P. (2013). Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population. Veterinary Microbiology, 162, 921-929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.036
    Ward, Michael P. ; Cowled, Brendan D. ; Galea, Francesca ; Garner, M. Graeme ; Laffan, Shawn W. ; Marsh, Ian ; Negus, Katherine ; SARRE, Stephen ; Woolnough, Andrew P. / Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population. In: Veterinary Microbiology. 2013 ; Vol. 162. pp. 921-929.
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    abstract = "Although wild pig populations are known to sometimes be infected by Salmonella, the situation in Australia has received little attention and few population-based, planned studies have been conducted. Understanding the distribution of Salmonella infections within wild pig populations allows the potential hazard posed to co-grazing livestock to be assessed. We sampled a remote and isolated wild pig population in northwestern Australia. Faecal and mesenteric lymph node samples were collected from 651 wild pigs at 93 locations and cultured for Salmonella. The population sampled was typical of wild pig populations in tropical areas of Australia, and sampling occurred approximately halfway through the population’s breeding season (38{\%} of the 229 adult females were pregnant and 35{\%} were lactating). Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella infection based on culture of 546 freshly collected faecal samples was 36.3{\%} (95{\%} CI 32.1–40.7{\%}), and based on culture of mesenteric lymph nodes was 11.9{\%} (95{\%} CI, 9.4–15.0{\%}). A total of 39 serovars (139 isolates) were identified – 29 in faecal samples and 24 in lymph node samples – however neither Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium nor Salmonella Cholerasuis were isolated. There was a significant (p <0.0001) disagreement between faecal and lymph node samples with respect to Salmonella isolation, with isolation more likely from faecal samples. Prevalence differed between age classes, with piglets being less likely to be faecal-positive but more likely to be lymph node positive than adults. The distribution of faecal-positive pigs was spatially structured, with spatial clusters being identified. Study results suggest that this population of wild pigs is highly endemic for Salmonella, and that Salmonella is transmitted from older to younger pigs, perhaps associated with landscape features such as water features. This might have implications for infection of co-grazing livestock within this environment.",
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    Ward, MP, Cowled, BD, Galea, F, Garner, MG, Laffan, SW, Marsh, I, Negus, K, SARRE, S & Woolnough, AP 2013, 'Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population', Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 162, pp. 921-929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.036

    Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population. / Ward, Michael P.; Cowled, Brendan D.; Galea, Francesca; Garner, M. Graeme; Laffan, Shawn W.; Marsh, Ian; Negus, Katherine; SARRE, Stephen; Woolnough, Andrew P.

    In: Veterinary Microbiology, Vol. 162, 2013, p. 921-929.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    AU - Cowled, Brendan D.

    AU - Galea, Francesca

    AU - Garner, M. Graeme

    AU - Laffan, Shawn W.

    AU - Marsh, Ian

    AU - Negus, Katherine

    AU - SARRE, Stephen

    AU - Woolnough, Andrew P.

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    Ward MP, Cowled BD, Galea F, Garner MG, Laffan SW, Marsh I et al. Salmonella infection in a remote, isolated wild pig population. Veterinary Microbiology. 2013;162:921-929. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.11.036