Protein kinase C (PKC)-θ is a serine/threonine kinase with both cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. Nuclear chromatin-associated PKC-θ (nPKC-θ) is increasingly recognized to be pathogenic in cancer, whereas its cytoplasmic signaling is restricted to normal T-cell function. Here we show that nPKC-θ is enriched in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) brain metastases and immunotherapy-resistant metastatic melanoma and is associated with poor survival in immunotherapy-resistant disease. To target nPKC-θ, we designed a novel PKC-θ peptide inhibitor (nPKC-θi2) that selectively inhibits nPKC-θ nuclear translocation but not PKC-θ signaling in healthy T cells. Targeting nPKC-θ reduced mesenchymal cancer stem cell signatures in immunotherapy-resistant CTCs and TNBC xenografts. PKC-θ was also enriched in the nuclei of CD8+ T cells isolated from stage IV immunotherapy-resistant metastatic cancer patients. We show for the first time that nPKC-θ complexes with ZEB1, a key repressive transcription factor in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in immunotherapy-resistant dysfunctional PD1+/CD8+ T cells. nPKC-θi2 inhibited the ZEB1/PKC-θ repressive complex to induce cytokine production in CD8+ T cells isolated from patients with immunotherapy-resistant disease. These data establish for the first time that nPKC-θ mediates immunotherapy resistance via its activity in CTCs and dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. Disrupting nPKC-θ but retaining its cytoplasmic function may offer a means to target metastases in combination with chemotherapy or immunotherapy.