Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1

Tariq EZAZ, Denis O'Meally, Kazumi MATSUBARA, Melanie Edwards, Clare HOLLELEY, Janine DEAKIN, Jennifer Graves, Arthur GEORGES, Scott V. Edwards, Stephen SARRE

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    20 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Background: Scant genomic information from non-avian reptile sex chromosomes is available, and for only a few lizards, several snakes and one turtle species, and it represents only a small fraction of the total sex chromosome sequences in these species. Results: We report a 352 kb of contiguous sequence from the sex chromosome of a squamate reptile, Pogona vitticeps, with a ZZ/ZW sex microchromosome system. This contig contains five protein coding genes (oprd1, rcc1, znf91, znf131, znf180), and major families of repetitive sequences with a high number of copies of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons, including the CR1 and Bov-B LINEs. The two genes, oprd1 and rcc1 are part of a homologous syntenic block, which is conserved among amniotes. While oprd1 and rcc1 have no known function in sex determination or differentiation in amniotes, this homologous syntenic block in mammals and chicken also contains R-spondin 1 (rspo1), the ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. In order to explore the probability that rspo1 is sex determining in dragon lizards, genomic BAC and cDNA clones were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Their location on an autosomal microchromosome pair, not on the ZW sex icrochromosomes, eliminates rspo1 as a candidate sex determining gene in P. vitticeps. Conclusion: Our study has characterized the largest contiguous stretch of physically mapped sex chromosome sequence (352 kb) from a ZZ/ZW lizard species. Although this region represents only a small fraction of the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps, it has revealed several features typically associated with sex chromosomes including the accumulation of large blocks of repetitive sequences.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1-13
    Number of pages13
    JournalBMC Genomics
    Volume14:899
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

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    vpr Genes
    Sex Chromosomes
    Lizards
    Genes
    Reptiles
    Nucleic Acid Repetitive Sequences
    Mammals
    Retroelements
    Turtles
    Snakes
    Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization
    Chickens
    Complementary DNA
    Clone Cells

    Cite this

    EZAZ, Tariq ; O'Meally, Denis ; MATSUBARA, Kazumi ; Edwards, Melanie ; HOLLELEY, Clare ; DEAKIN, Janine ; Graves, Jennifer ; GEORGES, Arthur ; Edwards, Scott V. ; SARRE, Stephen. / Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1. In: BMC Genomics. 2013 ; Vol. 14:899. pp. 1-13.
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    title = "Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1",
    abstract = "Background: Scant genomic information from non-avian reptile sex chromosomes is available, and for only a few lizards, several snakes and one turtle species, and it represents only a small fraction of the total sex chromosome sequences in these species. Results: We report a 352 kb of contiguous sequence from the sex chromosome of a squamate reptile, Pogona vitticeps, with a ZZ/ZW sex microchromosome system. This contig contains five protein coding genes (oprd1, rcc1, znf91, znf131, znf180), and major families of repetitive sequences with a high number of copies of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons, including the CR1 and Bov-B LINEs. The two genes, oprd1 and rcc1 are part of a homologous syntenic block, which is conserved among amniotes. While oprd1 and rcc1 have no known function in sex determination or differentiation in amniotes, this homologous syntenic block in mammals and chicken also contains R-spondin 1 (rspo1), the ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. In order to explore the probability that rspo1 is sex determining in dragon lizards, genomic BAC and cDNA clones were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Their location on an autosomal microchromosome pair, not on the ZW sex icrochromosomes, eliminates rspo1 as a candidate sex determining gene in P. vitticeps. Conclusion: Our study has characterized the largest contiguous stretch of physically mapped sex chromosome sequence (352 kb) from a ZZ/ZW lizard species. Although this region represents only a small fraction of the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps, it has revealed several features typically associated with sex chromosomes including the accumulation of large blocks of repetitive sequences.",
    keywords = "ZW sex chromosomes, Genotypic sex determination (GSD), Temperature dependent sex determination(TSD), RSPO1, Squamata, Reptilia.",
    author = "Tariq EZAZ and Denis O'Meally and Kazumi MATSUBARA and Melanie Edwards and Clare HOLLELEY and Janine DEAKIN and Jennifer Graves and Arthur GEORGES and Edwards, {Scott V.} and Stephen SARRE",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1186/1471-2164-14-899",
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    Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1. / EZAZ, Tariq; O'Meally, Denis; MATSUBARA, Kazumi; Edwards, Melanie; HOLLELEY, Clare; DEAKIN, Janine; Graves, Jennifer; GEORGES, Arthur; Edwards, Scott V.; SARRE, Stephen.

    In: BMC Genomics, Vol. 14:899, 2013, p. 1-13.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Sequence and gene content of a large fragment of a lizard sex chromosome and evaluation of candidate sex differentiating gene R-spondin 1

    AU - EZAZ, Tariq

    AU - O'Meally, Denis

    AU - MATSUBARA, Kazumi

    AU - Edwards, Melanie

    AU - HOLLELEY, Clare

    AU - DEAKIN, Janine

    AU - Graves, Jennifer

    AU - GEORGES, Arthur

    AU - Edwards, Scott V.

    AU - SARRE, Stephen

    PY - 2013

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    N2 - Background: Scant genomic information from non-avian reptile sex chromosomes is available, and for only a few lizards, several snakes and one turtle species, and it represents only a small fraction of the total sex chromosome sequences in these species. Results: We report a 352 kb of contiguous sequence from the sex chromosome of a squamate reptile, Pogona vitticeps, with a ZZ/ZW sex microchromosome system. This contig contains five protein coding genes (oprd1, rcc1, znf91, znf131, znf180), and major families of repetitive sequences with a high number of copies of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons, including the CR1 and Bov-B LINEs. The two genes, oprd1 and rcc1 are part of a homologous syntenic block, which is conserved among amniotes. While oprd1 and rcc1 have no known function in sex determination or differentiation in amniotes, this homologous syntenic block in mammals and chicken also contains R-spondin 1 (rspo1), the ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. In order to explore the probability that rspo1 is sex determining in dragon lizards, genomic BAC and cDNA clones were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Their location on an autosomal microchromosome pair, not on the ZW sex icrochromosomes, eliminates rspo1 as a candidate sex determining gene in P. vitticeps. Conclusion: Our study has characterized the largest contiguous stretch of physically mapped sex chromosome sequence (352 kb) from a ZZ/ZW lizard species. Although this region represents only a small fraction of the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps, it has revealed several features typically associated with sex chromosomes including the accumulation of large blocks of repetitive sequences.

    AB - Background: Scant genomic information from non-avian reptile sex chromosomes is available, and for only a few lizards, several snakes and one turtle species, and it represents only a small fraction of the total sex chromosome sequences in these species. Results: We report a 352 kb of contiguous sequence from the sex chromosome of a squamate reptile, Pogona vitticeps, with a ZZ/ZW sex microchromosome system. This contig contains five protein coding genes (oprd1, rcc1, znf91, znf131, znf180), and major families of repetitive sequences with a high number of copies of LTR and non-LTR retrotransposons, including the CR1 and Bov-B LINEs. The two genes, oprd1 and rcc1 are part of a homologous syntenic block, which is conserved among amniotes. While oprd1 and rcc1 have no known function in sex determination or differentiation in amniotes, this homologous syntenic block in mammals and chicken also contains R-spondin 1 (rspo1), the ovarian differentiating gene in mammals. In order to explore the probability that rspo1 is sex determining in dragon lizards, genomic BAC and cDNA clones were mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Their location on an autosomal microchromosome pair, not on the ZW sex icrochromosomes, eliminates rspo1 as a candidate sex determining gene in P. vitticeps. Conclusion: Our study has characterized the largest contiguous stretch of physically mapped sex chromosome sequence (352 kb) from a ZZ/ZW lizard species. Although this region represents only a small fraction of the sex chromosomes of P. vitticeps, it has revealed several features typically associated with sex chromosomes including the accumulation of large blocks of repetitive sequences.

    KW - ZW sex chromosomes

    KW - Genotypic sex determination (GSD)

    KW - Temperature dependent sex determination(TSD)

    KW - RSPO1

    KW - Squamata

    KW - Reptilia.

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    DO - 10.1186/1471-2164-14-899

    M3 - Article

    VL - 14:899

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    JO - BMC Genomics

    JF - BMC Genomics

    SN - 1471-2164

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