Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes

Richard J. Allison, Graeme L Close, Abdulaziz Farooq, Nathan R. Riding, Othman Salah, Bruce Hamilton, Mathew G. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has associations with bowl/colon cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many athletes are vitamin D deficient, yet no studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D status and cardiac structure and function in healthy athletes. Design: A total of 506 national-level athletes [football (50%), handball (23%), volleyball (16%), and basketball (11%)] and 244 control participants presented for precompetition medical assessment. Controls were healthy individuals registered with a sporting federation undertaking <2 h of exercise per week. Methods: All individuals undertook a physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and serum 25(OH)D evaluation. Results: From 506 athletes and 244 controls, 23 and 12.3% demonstrated 25(OH)D sufficiency (>30 ng/ml), 30 and 23.4% insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), 37.2 and 48.8% deficiency (10-20 ng/ml), and 11 and 15.6% severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml). Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly (p<0.05) smaller aortic root and left atria diameters, intraventricular septum diameter (IVSd), left ventricular diameter during diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volume during diastole (LVvolD), and right atrial (RA) area than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Furthermore, following logarithmic transformation adjusting 25(OH)D for age, body surface area, ethnicity, and athletic participation, positive associations were observed between 25(OH)D and IVSd, LVIDd, posterior wall thickness during diastole, LVM, and LVvolD in athletes but not in the control participants. Conclusions: Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly smaller cardiac structural parameters than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Future research should investigate the precise mechanism(s) causing cardiac hypertrophy with increases in serum 25(OH)D in healthy athletes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-542
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Apr 2015
Externally publishedYes

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Vitamin D
Athletes
Diastole
Volleyball
Basketball
Football
Body Surface Area
Cardiomegaly
Heart Atria
Colonic Neoplasms
Arthritis
Sports
Cardiovascular Diseases
Serum

Cite this

Allison, R. J., Close, G. L., Farooq, A., Riding, N. R., Salah, O., Hamilton, B., & Wilson, M. G. (2015). Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 22(4), 535-542. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487313518473
Allison, Richard J. ; Close, Graeme L ; Farooq, Abdulaziz ; Riding, Nathan R. ; Salah, Othman ; Hamilton, Bruce ; Wilson, Mathew G. / Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes. In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology. 2015 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 535-542.
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abstract = "Background: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has associations with bowl/colon cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many athletes are vitamin D deficient, yet no studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D status and cardiac structure and function in healthy athletes. Design: A total of 506 national-level athletes [football (50{\%}), handball (23{\%}), volleyball (16{\%}), and basketball (11{\%})] and 244 control participants presented for precompetition medical assessment. Controls were healthy individuals registered with a sporting federation undertaking <2 h of exercise per week. Methods: All individuals undertook a physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and serum 25(OH)D evaluation. Results: From 506 athletes and 244 controls, 23 and 12.3{\%} demonstrated 25(OH)D sufficiency (>30 ng/ml), 30 and 23.4{\%} insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), 37.2 and 48.8{\%} deficiency (10-20 ng/ml), and 11 and 15.6{\%} severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml). Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly (p<0.05) smaller aortic root and left atria diameters, intraventricular septum diameter (IVSd), left ventricular diameter during diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volume during diastole (LVvolD), and right atrial (RA) area than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Furthermore, following logarithmic transformation adjusting 25(OH)D for age, body surface area, ethnicity, and athletic participation, positive associations were observed between 25(OH)D and IVSd, LVIDd, posterior wall thickness during diastole, LVM, and LVvolD in athletes but not in the control participants. Conclusions: Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly smaller cardiac structural parameters than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Future research should investigate the precise mechanism(s) causing cardiac hypertrophy with increases in serum 25(OH)D in healthy athletes.",
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Allison, RJ, Close, GL, Farooq, A, Riding, NR, Salah, O, Hamilton, B & Wilson, MG 2015, 'Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes', European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 535-542. https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487313518473

Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes. / Allison, Richard J.; Close, Graeme L; Farooq, Abdulaziz; Riding, Nathan R.; Salah, Othman; Hamilton, Bruce; Wilson, Mathew G.

In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol. 22, No. 4, 15.04.2015, p. 535-542.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Severely vitamin D-deficient athletes present smaller hearts than sufficient athletes

AU - Allison, Richard J.

AU - Close, Graeme L

AU - Farooq, Abdulaziz

AU - Riding, Nathan R.

AU - Salah, Othman

AU - Hamilton, Bruce

AU - Wilson, Mathew G.

PY - 2015/4/15

Y1 - 2015/4/15

N2 - Background: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has associations with bowl/colon cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many athletes are vitamin D deficient, yet no studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D status and cardiac structure and function in healthy athletes. Design: A total of 506 national-level athletes [football (50%), handball (23%), volleyball (16%), and basketball (11%)] and 244 control participants presented for precompetition medical assessment. Controls were healthy individuals registered with a sporting federation undertaking <2 h of exercise per week. Methods: All individuals undertook a physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and serum 25(OH)D evaluation. Results: From 506 athletes and 244 controls, 23 and 12.3% demonstrated 25(OH)D sufficiency (>30 ng/ml), 30 and 23.4% insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), 37.2 and 48.8% deficiency (10-20 ng/ml), and 11 and 15.6% severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml). Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly (p<0.05) smaller aortic root and left atria diameters, intraventricular septum diameter (IVSd), left ventricular diameter during diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volume during diastole (LVvolD), and right atrial (RA) area than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Furthermore, following logarithmic transformation adjusting 25(OH)D for age, body surface area, ethnicity, and athletic participation, positive associations were observed between 25(OH)D and IVSd, LVIDd, posterior wall thickness during diastole, LVM, and LVvolD in athletes but not in the control participants. Conclusions: Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly smaller cardiac structural parameters than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Future research should investigate the precise mechanism(s) causing cardiac hypertrophy with increases in serum 25(OH)D in healthy athletes.

AB - Background: Vitamin D (25(OH)D) deficiency has associations with bowl/colon cancer, arthritis, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Many athletes are vitamin D deficient, yet no studies have examined the association between 25(OH)D status and cardiac structure and function in healthy athletes. Design: A total of 506 national-level athletes [football (50%), handball (23%), volleyball (16%), and basketball (11%)] and 244 control participants presented for precompetition medical assessment. Controls were healthy individuals registered with a sporting federation undertaking <2 h of exercise per week. Methods: All individuals undertook a physical examination, 12-lead electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and serum 25(OH)D evaluation. Results: From 506 athletes and 244 controls, 23 and 12.3% demonstrated 25(OH)D sufficiency (>30 ng/ml), 30 and 23.4% insufficiency (20-30 ng/ml), 37.2 and 48.8% deficiency (10-20 ng/ml), and 11 and 15.6% severe deficiency (<10 ng/ml). Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly (p<0.05) smaller aortic root and left atria diameters, intraventricular septum diameter (IVSd), left ventricular diameter during diastole (LVIDd), left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular volume during diastole (LVvolD), and right atrial (RA) area than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Furthermore, following logarithmic transformation adjusting 25(OH)D for age, body surface area, ethnicity, and athletic participation, positive associations were observed between 25(OH)D and IVSd, LVIDd, posterior wall thickness during diastole, LVM, and LVvolD in athletes but not in the control participants. Conclusions: Severely 25(OH)D-deficient athletes present significantly smaller cardiac structural parameters than insufficient and sufficient athletes. Future research should investigate the precise mechanism(s) causing cardiac hypertrophy with increases in serum 25(OH)D in healthy athletes.

KW - Athlete's heart

KW - cardiac structure and function

KW - vitamin D deficiency

KW - Severity of Illness Index

KW - Echocardiography

KW - Heart/growth & development

KW - Humans

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Organ Size

KW - Male

KW - Athletes

KW - Case-Control Studies

KW - Young Adult

KW - Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced

KW - Vitamin D Deficiency/blood

KW - Biomarkers

KW - Electrocardiography

KW - Adult

KW - Vitamin D/analogs & derivatives

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U2 - 10.1177/2047487313518473

DO - 10.1177/2047487313518473

M3 - Article

VL - 22

SP - 535

EP - 542

JO - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

JF - European Journal of Preventive Cardiology

SN - 2047-4873

IS - 4

ER -