Transcriptional programs initiated by different external cues are tightly regulated by highly conserved signaling kinases. Though the action of signaling kinases is predominantly reported in the cytoplasm, emerging studies describe that their physiological and pathological functions are mediated through direct regulation of gene expression programs. The dual role of signaling kinases to regulate gene transcription occurs via cytoplasmic signaling to the nucleus, wherein they need to enter the nucleus to act as a novel class of epigenetic enzymes that directly tether to the chromatin template and exquisitely (or dynamically) regulate the epigenome.
Lim, P. S., Khanna, K. K., & Rao, S. (2017). Signaling to the epigenome: New insights into the roles of nuclear signaling kinases in the context of the immune system and cancer. Frontiers in Immunology, 8, 1-2. . https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00980