Simulation-based education is a significant aspect of teaching clinical skills in tertiary medical radiation science programmes, allowing students to experience the clinical setting in a safe environment. As an educational tool, simulation exists in many valid forms including role play, interprofessional simulation and virtual reality simulation. This scoping review looks at the current literature in this field to identify the evidence surrounding simulation-based education for medical radiation students. The purpose of this review is to provide an evidence-based guide for educators, identify gaps in the literature and suggest areas of future research. Data extraction was performed on 33 articles where the interventions could be categorised into either role play simulation, virtual simulation, simulation videos or online learning environments. Most studies demonstrated that simulation could improve clinical competence and increase preparedness and confidence for clinical placement. Student satisfaction remained high throughout the studies; however, it is the view of many that although simulation-based education is a valid and effective tool, it is complementary to and not a replacement for clinical placement.