We report the performance of LC, a deep dyslexic. We investigated extensively her errors according to serial cognitive neuropsychological models of oral reading. Initial evaluation of her reading suggested impaired access to the phonological output lexicon (POL). Impaired grapheme-to- phoneme conversion (GPC) and semantic errors in reading suggested that LC read via an impoverished semantic route. However, a serial model of oral reading could not explain error differences in reading, picture naming, spontaneous speech, and repetition. Neologisms occurred in oral reading but not in spontaneous speech and repetition. Semantic errors in naming exceeded those in oral reading. To account for these different error patterns we propose that the semantic route, the direct route from the orthographic input lexicon to the POL, and GPC activate simultaneously during reading, converging at the POL to constrain phonological selection. These routes are modular but not functionally encapsulated. For LC, the POL receives ambiguous information due to degradation of all routes, causing reading errors.