Social Inequalities in Food Exposure Around Schools in an Urban Area

Yan Kestens, Mark Daniel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. Purpose: This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density. Methods: A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density. Results: For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95% CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95% CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95% CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density. Conclusions: Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)33-40
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine
Volume39
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2010
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Food
Fast Foods
Restaurants
Vegetables
Fruit
Canada
Obesity
Research

Cite this

@article{ab1d6f564f5d40afa1af66e4d4331d26,
title = "Social Inequalities in Food Exposure Around Schools in an Urban Area",
abstract = "Background: The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. Purpose: This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density. Methods: A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density. Results: For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95{\%} CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95{\%} CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95{\%} CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density. Conclusions: Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Canada, fast food, Food supply, urban population, Socioeconomic factors, vegetable, Income, Urban population",
author = "Yan Kestens and Mark Daniel",
year = "2010",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.014",
language = "English",
volume = "39",
pages = "33--40",
journal = "American Journal of Preventive Medicine",
issn = "0749-3797",
publisher = "Elsevier Inc.",
number = "1",

}

Social Inequalities in Food Exposure Around Schools in an Urban Area. / Kestens, Yan; Daniel, Mark.

In: American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Vol. 39, No. 1, 07.2010, p. 33-40.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Social Inequalities in Food Exposure Around Schools in an Urban Area

AU - Kestens, Yan

AU - Daniel, Mark

PY - 2010/7

Y1 - 2010/7

N2 - Background: The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. Purpose: This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density. Methods: A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density. Results: For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95% CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95% CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95% CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density. Conclusions: Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities.

AB - Background: The obesity epidemic among children and youth, and the social gradient in this relationship, could be related to differential exposure to food sources in primary environments. Although the positive association between area-level deprivation and fast-food outlets offering high-calorie foods has been well documented, few studies have evaluated food sources around school settings. Purpose: This study evaluated the relationships among food sources around schools, neighborhood income, and commercial density. Methods: A GIS was used to derive measures of exposure to fast-food outlets, fruit and vegetable stores, and full-service restaurants near primary and secondary schools in Montreal, Canada, in 2005. Food source availability was analyzed in 2009 in relation to neighborhood income for the area around schools, accounting for commercial density. Results: For the 1168 schools identified, strong neighborhood income gradients were observed in relation to food sources. Relative to the highest income-quartile schools, the odds of a fast-food outlet being located within 750 m of a low income-quartile school was 30.9 (95% CI=19.6, 48.9). Similar relationships were observed for full-service restaurants (OR=77, 95% CI=35, 169.3) and fruit and vegetable stores (OR=29.6, 95% CI=18.8, 46.7). These associations were reduced, but remained significant in models accounting for commercial density. Conclusions: Food source exposure around schools is inversely associated with neighborhood income, but commercial density partly accounts for this association. Further research is necessary to document food consumption among youth attending schools in relation to nearby food source opportunities.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Canada

KW - fast food

KW - Food supply

KW - urban population

KW - Socioeconomic factors

KW - vegetable

KW - Income

KW - Urban population

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77953286014&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.014

DO - 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.03.014

M3 - Article

VL - 39

SP - 33

EP - 40

JO - American Journal of Preventive Medicine

JF - American Journal of Preventive Medicine

SN - 0749-3797

IS - 1

ER -