Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism

David A. Ralston, Carolyn P. Egri, Olivier Furrer, Min Hsun Kuo, Yongjuan Li, Florian Wangenheim, Marina Dabic, Irina Naoumova, Katsuhiko Shimizu, María Teresa de la Garza Carranza, Ping Ping Fu, Vojko V. Potocan, Andre Pekerti, Tomasz Lenartowicz, Narasimhan Srinivasan, Tania Casado, Ana Maria Rossi, Erna Szabo, Arif Butt, Ian Palmer & 29 others Prem Ramburuth, David M. Brock, Jane Terpstra-Tong, Ilya Grison, Emmanuelle Reynaud, Malika Richards, Philip Hallinger, Francisco B. Castro, Jaime Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Laurie Milton, Mahfooz Ansari, Arunas Starkus, Audra Mockaitis, Tevfik Dalgic, Fidel León-Darder, Hung Vu Thanh, Yong lin Moon, Mario Molteni, Yongqing FANG, Jose Pla-Barber, Ruth Alas, Isabelle Maignan, Jorge C. Jesuino, Chay Hoon Lee, Joel D. Nicholson, Ho Beng Chia, Wade Danis, Ajantha S. Dharmasiri, Mark Weber

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    36 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)283-306
    Number of pages24
    JournalJournal of Business Ethics
    Volume122
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2014

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    individualism
    Values
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    Ethical behavior
    Individualism
    Collectivism
    Prediction

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    Ralston, David A. ; Egri, Carolyn P. ; Furrer, Olivier ; Kuo, Min Hsun ; Li, Yongjuan ; Wangenheim, Florian ; Dabic, Marina ; Naoumova, Irina ; Shimizu, Katsuhiko ; de la Garza Carranza, María Teresa ; Fu, Ping Ping ; Potocan, Vojko V. ; Pekerti, Andre ; Lenartowicz, Tomasz ; Srinivasan, Narasimhan ; Casado, Tania ; Rossi, Ana Maria ; Szabo, Erna ; Butt, Arif ; Palmer, Ian ; Ramburuth, Prem ; Brock, David M. ; Terpstra-Tong, Jane ; Grison, Ilya ; Reynaud, Emmanuelle ; Richards, Malika ; Hallinger, Philip ; Castro, Francisco B. ; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Jaime ; Milton, Laurie ; Ansari, Mahfooz ; Starkus, Arunas ; Mockaitis, Audra ; Dalgic, Tevfik ; León-Darder, Fidel ; Thanh, Hung Vu ; Moon, Yong lin ; Molteni, Mario ; FANG, Yongqing ; Pla-Barber, Jose ; Alas, Ruth ; Maignan, Isabelle ; Jesuino, Jorge C. ; Lee, Chay Hoon ; Nicholson, Joel D. ; Chia, Ho Beng ; Danis, Wade ; Dharmasiri, Ajantha S. ; Weber, Mark. / Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism. In: Journal of Business Ethics. 2014 ; Vol. 122, No. 2. pp. 283-306.
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    title = "Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism",
    abstract = "Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed.",
    keywords = "Collectivism, Cultural values, Hierarchical linear modeling, Individualism, Influence ethics",
    author = "Ralston, {David A.} and Egri, {Carolyn P.} and Olivier Furrer and Kuo, {Min Hsun} and Yongjuan Li and Florian Wangenheim and Marina Dabic and Irina Naoumova and Katsuhiko Shimizu and {de la Garza Carranza}, {Mar{\'i}a Teresa} and Fu, {Ping Ping} and Potocan, {Vojko V.} and Andre Pekerti and Tomasz Lenartowicz and Narasimhan Srinivasan and Tania Casado and Rossi, {Ana Maria} and Erna Szabo and Arif Butt and Ian Palmer and Prem Ramburuth and Brock, {David M.} and Jane Terpstra-Tong and Ilya Grison and Emmanuelle Reynaud and Malika Richards and Philip Hallinger and Castro, {Francisco B.} and Jaime Ruiz-Guti{\'e}rrez and Laurie Milton and Mahfooz Ansari and Arunas Starkus and Audra Mockaitis and Tevfik Dalgic and Fidel Le{\'o}n-Darder and Thanh, {Hung Vu} and Moon, {Yong lin} and Mario Molteni and Yongqing FANG and Jose Pla-Barber and Ruth Alas and Isabelle Maignan and Jesuino, {Jorge C.} and Lee, {Chay Hoon} and Nicholson, {Joel D.} and Chia, {Ho Beng} and Wade Danis and Dharmasiri, {Ajantha S.} and Mark Weber",
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    Ralston, DA, Egri, CP, Furrer, O, Kuo, MH, Li, Y, Wangenheim, F, Dabic, M, Naoumova, I, Shimizu, K, de la Garza Carranza, MT, Fu, PP, Potocan, VV, Pekerti, A, Lenartowicz, T, Srinivasan, N, Casado, T, Rossi, AM, Szabo, E, Butt, A, Palmer, I, Ramburuth, P, Brock, DM, Terpstra-Tong, J, Grison, I, Reynaud, E, Richards, M, Hallinger, P, Castro, FB, Ruiz-Gutiérrez, J, Milton, L, Ansari, M, Starkus, A, Mockaitis, A, Dalgic, T, León-Darder, F, Thanh, HV, Moon, YL, Molteni, M, FANG, Y, Pla-Barber, J, Alas, R, Maignan, I, Jesuino, JC, Lee, CH, Nicholson, JD, Chia, HB, Danis, W, Dharmasiri, AS & Weber, M 2014, 'Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism', Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 122, no. 2, pp. 283-306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-013-1744-9

    Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism. / Ralston, David A.; Egri, Carolyn P.; Furrer, Olivier; Kuo, Min Hsun; Li, Yongjuan; Wangenheim, Florian; Dabic, Marina; Naoumova, Irina; Shimizu, Katsuhiko; de la Garza Carranza, María Teresa; Fu, Ping Ping; Potocan, Vojko V.; Pekerti, Andre; Lenartowicz, Tomasz; Srinivasan, Narasimhan; Casado, Tania; Rossi, Ana Maria; Szabo, Erna; Butt, Arif; Palmer, Ian; Ramburuth, Prem; Brock, David M.; Terpstra-Tong, Jane; Grison, Ilya; Reynaud, Emmanuelle; Richards, Malika; Hallinger, Philip; Castro, Francisco B.; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Jaime; Milton, Laurie; Ansari, Mahfooz; Starkus, Arunas; Mockaitis, Audra; Dalgic, Tevfik; León-Darder, Fidel; Thanh, Hung Vu; Moon, Yong lin; Molteni, Mario; FANG, Yongqing; Pla-Barber, Jose; Alas, Ruth; Maignan, Isabelle; Jesuino, Jorge C.; Lee, Chay Hoon; Nicholson, Joel D.; Chia, Ho Beng; Danis, Wade; Dharmasiri, Ajantha S.; Weber, Mark.

    In: Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 122, No. 2, 2014, p. 283-306.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Societal-Level Versus Individual-Level Predictions of Ethical Behavior: A 48-Society Study of Collectivism and Individualism

    AU - Ralston, David A.

    AU - Egri, Carolyn P.

    AU - Furrer, Olivier

    AU - Kuo, Min Hsun

    AU - Li, Yongjuan

    AU - Wangenheim, Florian

    AU - Dabic, Marina

    AU - Naoumova, Irina

    AU - Shimizu, Katsuhiko

    AU - de la Garza Carranza, María Teresa

    AU - Fu, Ping Ping

    AU - Potocan, Vojko V.

    AU - Pekerti, Andre

    AU - Lenartowicz, Tomasz

    AU - Srinivasan, Narasimhan

    AU - Casado, Tania

    AU - Rossi, Ana Maria

    AU - Szabo, Erna

    AU - Butt, Arif

    AU - Palmer, Ian

    AU - Ramburuth, Prem

    AU - Brock, David M.

    AU - Terpstra-Tong, Jane

    AU - Grison, Ilya

    AU - Reynaud, Emmanuelle

    AU - Richards, Malika

    AU - Hallinger, Philip

    AU - Castro, Francisco B.

    AU - Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Jaime

    AU - Milton, Laurie

    AU - Ansari, Mahfooz

    AU - Starkus, Arunas

    AU - Mockaitis, Audra

    AU - Dalgic, Tevfik

    AU - León-Darder, Fidel

    AU - Thanh, Hung Vu

    AU - Moon, Yong lin

    AU - Molteni, Mario

    AU - FANG, Yongqing

    AU - Pla-Barber, Jose

    AU - Alas, Ruth

    AU - Maignan, Isabelle

    AU - Jesuino, Jorge C.

    AU - Lee, Chay Hoon

    AU - Nicholson, Joel D.

    AU - Chia, Ho Beng

    AU - Danis, Wade

    AU - Dharmasiri, Ajantha S.

    AU - Weber, Mark

    PY - 2014

    Y1 - 2014

    N2 - Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed.

    AB - Is the societal-level of analysis sufficient today to understand the values of those in the global workforce? Or are individual-level analyses more appropriate for assessing the influence of values on ethical behaviors across country workforces? Using multi-level analyses for a 48-society sample, we test the utility of both the societal-level and individual-level dimensions of collectivism and individualism values for predicting ethical behaviors of business professionals. Our values-based behavioral analysis indicates that values at the individual-level make a more significant contribution to explaining variance in ethical behaviors than do values at the societal-level. Implicitly, our findings question the soundness of using societal-level values measures. Implications for international business research are discussed.

    KW - Collectivism

    KW - Cultural values

    KW - Hierarchical linear modeling

    KW - Individualism

    KW - Influence ethics

    U2 - 10.1007/s10551-013-1744-9

    DO - 10.1007/s10551-013-1744-9

    M3 - Article

    VL - 122

    SP - 283

    EP - 306

    JO - International Journal of Value-Based Management

    JF - International Journal of Value-Based Management

    SN - 0167-4544

    IS - 2

    ER -