Somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movements

Age, gender and sway effect magnitudes

Zhengquan Chen, Jia Han, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams, Jeremy Witchalls

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: 1) to develop a reliable device for assessing somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movement, specifically a sway discrimination apparatus (SwayDA) for testing voluntary lateral sway discrimination sensitivity (VLSDS); 2) to explore the relationship between mobility performance and VLSDS in older adults, and 3) to determine the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS.

METHODS: First, eighteen healthy young adults (8 males, 10 females, age ranging from 22 to 70) were recruited for a test-retest reliability study. During the SwayDA test, the participants were asked to discriminate between four possible medial-lateral sway extents when moving away from neutral standing. For Objective 2, twenty-five older participants (9 males, 16 females, mean age 70.1) undertook both the SwayDA and the mobility tests. The mobility testing battery consisted of single task and cognitive dual task timed-up and-go tests, and the 5 times sit-to-stand test. Pearson's correlation was calculated between SwayDA scores and mobility performance. For Objective 3, 20 community-dwelling adults over 65 years old (10 males, 10 females, mean age 71.3) and 20 young volunteers (10 males, 10 females, mean age 23.6) were recruited to study the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS. To obtain a bias-free measure of VLSDS, the probability of correct response was considered as the true-positive judgment, while the probability of incorrect response was considered as false-positive judgment, and these were cumulated across the response values. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then generated and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was used to measure VLSDS.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in AUC scores between Day 1 and Day 8 (p > 0.05). ICC(3,1) reliability indices were 0.750 for sway to the left and 0.879 for sway to the right. Pearson's correlation revealed a significant correlation between the SwayDA sores and timed-up-and-go (TUG), cognitive dual task TUG, 5 times sit-to-stand test (r = -0.456, -0.522, and - 0.416 respectively, all p < 0.05). Factorial ANOVA showed age and gender main effects (F = 8.144, p < 0.01, and F = 8.806, p < 0.01, respectively), suggesting older adults and females had worse VLSDS. In addition, a significant difference was found between the young and older participants in the inner range of VLSDS (t = -2.875, p < 0.017), indicating that the decline of somatosensory perception of postural sway in older people may be magnitude-specific, and greatest for small deviations from upright stance.

CONCLUSIONS: The SwayDA has good to excellent test-retest reliability. The finding that VLSDS score was significantly correlated with mobility performance in older adults highlights the importance of somatosensory perception in postural control. More importantly, the significantly worse VLSDS in older people observed in the inner lateral movement range may represent a unique characteristic of neuromuscular degeneration associated with aging, which should be monitored and addressed in rehabilitation programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)53-59
Number of pages7
JournalExperimental Gerontology
Volume122
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jul 2019

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Testing
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Patient rehabilitation
Aging of materials
ROC Curve
Discrimination (Psychology)
Reproducibility of Results
Independent Living
Area Under Curve
Young Adult
Volunteers
Analysis of Variance
Rehabilitation
Equipment and Supplies

Cite this

@article{c70324292e594d57a279caa03b96d1ba,
title = "Somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movements: Age, gender and sway effect magnitudes",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: 1) to develop a reliable device for assessing somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movement, specifically a sway discrimination apparatus (SwayDA) for testing voluntary lateral sway discrimination sensitivity (VLSDS); 2) to explore the relationship between mobility performance and VLSDS in older adults, and 3) to determine the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS.METHODS: First, eighteen healthy young adults (8 males, 10 females, age ranging from 22 to 70) were recruited for a test-retest reliability study. During the SwayDA test, the participants were asked to discriminate between four possible medial-lateral sway extents when moving away from neutral standing. For Objective 2, twenty-five older participants (9 males, 16 females, mean age 70.1) undertook both the SwayDA and the mobility tests. The mobility testing battery consisted of single task and cognitive dual task timed-up and-go tests, and the 5 times sit-to-stand test. Pearson's correlation was calculated between SwayDA scores and mobility performance. For Objective 3, 20 community-dwelling adults over 65 years old (10 males, 10 females, mean age 71.3) and 20 young volunteers (10 males, 10 females, mean age 23.6) were recruited to study the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS. To obtain a bias-free measure of VLSDS, the probability of correct response was considered as the true-positive judgment, while the probability of incorrect response was considered as false-positive judgment, and these were cumulated across the response values. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then generated and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was used to measure VLSDS.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in AUC scores between Day 1 and Day 8 (p > 0.05). ICC(3,1) reliability indices were 0.750 for sway to the left and 0.879 for sway to the right. Pearson's correlation revealed a significant correlation between the SwayDA sores and timed-up-and-go (TUG), cognitive dual task TUG, 5 times sit-to-stand test (r = -0.456, -0.522, and - 0.416 respectively, all p < 0.05). Factorial ANOVA showed age and gender main effects (F = 8.144, p < 0.01, and F = 8.806, p < 0.01, respectively), suggesting older adults and females had worse VLSDS. In addition, a significant difference was found between the young and older participants in the inner range of VLSDS (t = -2.875, p < 0.017), indicating that the decline of somatosensory perception of postural sway in older people may be magnitude-specific, and greatest for small deviations from upright stance.CONCLUSIONS: The SwayDA has good to excellent test-retest reliability. The finding that VLSDS score was significantly correlated with mobility performance in older adults highlights the importance of somatosensory perception in postural control. More importantly, the significantly worse VLSDS in older people observed in the inner lateral movement range may represent a unique characteristic of neuromuscular degeneration associated with aging, which should be monitored and addressed in rehabilitation programs.",
keywords = "Balance, Biomedical engineering, Movement discrimination, Older, Postural control",
author = "Zhengquan Chen and Jia Han and Gordon Waddington and Roger Adams and Jeremy Witchalls",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "15",
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language = "English",
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Somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movements : Age, gender and sway effect magnitudes. / Chen, Zhengquan; Han, Jia; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Witchalls, Jeremy.

In: Experimental Gerontology, Vol. 122, 15.07.2019, p. 53-59.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movements

T2 - Age, gender and sway effect magnitudes

AU - Chen, Zhengquan

AU - Han, Jia

AU - Waddington, Gordon

AU - Adams, Roger

AU - Witchalls, Jeremy

N1 - Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PY - 2019/7/15

Y1 - 2019/7/15

N2 - OBJECTIVES: 1) to develop a reliable device for assessing somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movement, specifically a sway discrimination apparatus (SwayDA) for testing voluntary lateral sway discrimination sensitivity (VLSDS); 2) to explore the relationship between mobility performance and VLSDS in older adults, and 3) to determine the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS.METHODS: First, eighteen healthy young adults (8 males, 10 females, age ranging from 22 to 70) were recruited for a test-retest reliability study. During the SwayDA test, the participants were asked to discriminate between four possible medial-lateral sway extents when moving away from neutral standing. For Objective 2, twenty-five older participants (9 males, 16 females, mean age 70.1) undertook both the SwayDA and the mobility tests. The mobility testing battery consisted of single task and cognitive dual task timed-up and-go tests, and the 5 times sit-to-stand test. Pearson's correlation was calculated between SwayDA scores and mobility performance. For Objective 3, 20 community-dwelling adults over 65 years old (10 males, 10 females, mean age 71.3) and 20 young volunteers (10 males, 10 females, mean age 23.6) were recruited to study the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS. To obtain a bias-free measure of VLSDS, the probability of correct response was considered as the true-positive judgment, while the probability of incorrect response was considered as false-positive judgment, and these were cumulated across the response values. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then generated and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was used to measure VLSDS.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in AUC scores between Day 1 and Day 8 (p > 0.05). ICC(3,1) reliability indices were 0.750 for sway to the left and 0.879 for sway to the right. Pearson's correlation revealed a significant correlation between the SwayDA sores and timed-up-and-go (TUG), cognitive dual task TUG, 5 times sit-to-stand test (r = -0.456, -0.522, and - 0.416 respectively, all p < 0.05). Factorial ANOVA showed age and gender main effects (F = 8.144, p < 0.01, and F = 8.806, p < 0.01, respectively), suggesting older adults and females had worse VLSDS. In addition, a significant difference was found between the young and older participants in the inner range of VLSDS (t = -2.875, p < 0.017), indicating that the decline of somatosensory perception of postural sway in older people may be magnitude-specific, and greatest for small deviations from upright stance.CONCLUSIONS: The SwayDA has good to excellent test-retest reliability. The finding that VLSDS score was significantly correlated with mobility performance in older adults highlights the importance of somatosensory perception in postural control. More importantly, the significantly worse VLSDS in older people observed in the inner lateral movement range may represent a unique characteristic of neuromuscular degeneration associated with aging, which should be monitored and addressed in rehabilitation programs.

AB - OBJECTIVES: 1) to develop a reliable device for assessing somatosensory perception sensitivity in voluntary postural sway movement, specifically a sway discrimination apparatus (SwayDA) for testing voluntary lateral sway discrimination sensitivity (VLSDS); 2) to explore the relationship between mobility performance and VLSDS in older adults, and 3) to determine the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS.METHODS: First, eighteen healthy young adults (8 males, 10 females, age ranging from 22 to 70) were recruited for a test-retest reliability study. During the SwayDA test, the participants were asked to discriminate between four possible medial-lateral sway extents when moving away from neutral standing. For Objective 2, twenty-five older participants (9 males, 16 females, mean age 70.1) undertook both the SwayDA and the mobility tests. The mobility testing battery consisted of single task and cognitive dual task timed-up and-go tests, and the 5 times sit-to-stand test. Pearson's correlation was calculated between SwayDA scores and mobility performance. For Objective 3, 20 community-dwelling adults over 65 years old (10 males, 10 females, mean age 71.3) and 20 young volunteers (10 males, 10 females, mean age 23.6) were recruited to study the effects of age, gender and sway magnitude on VLSDS. To obtain a bias-free measure of VLSDS, the probability of correct response was considered as the true-positive judgment, while the probability of incorrect response was considered as false-positive judgment, and these were cumulated across the response values. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was then generated and the Area Under the ROC Curve (AUC) was used to measure VLSDS.RESULTS: There was no significant difference in AUC scores between Day 1 and Day 8 (p > 0.05). ICC(3,1) reliability indices were 0.750 for sway to the left and 0.879 for sway to the right. Pearson's correlation revealed a significant correlation between the SwayDA sores and timed-up-and-go (TUG), cognitive dual task TUG, 5 times sit-to-stand test (r = -0.456, -0.522, and - 0.416 respectively, all p < 0.05). Factorial ANOVA showed age and gender main effects (F = 8.144, p < 0.01, and F = 8.806, p < 0.01, respectively), suggesting older adults and females had worse VLSDS. In addition, a significant difference was found between the young and older participants in the inner range of VLSDS (t = -2.875, p < 0.017), indicating that the decline of somatosensory perception of postural sway in older people may be magnitude-specific, and greatest for small deviations from upright stance.CONCLUSIONS: The SwayDA has good to excellent test-retest reliability. The finding that VLSDS score was significantly correlated with mobility performance in older adults highlights the importance of somatosensory perception in postural control. More importantly, the significantly worse VLSDS in older people observed in the inner lateral movement range may represent a unique characteristic of neuromuscular degeneration associated with aging, which should be monitored and addressed in rehabilitation programs.

KW - Balance

KW - Biomedical engineering

KW - Movement discrimination

KW - Older

KW - Postural control

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DO - 10.1016/j.exger.2019.04.013

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JO - Experimental Gerontology

JF - Experimental Gerontology

SN - 0531-5565

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