Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the tuberculosis incidence rate in Iran 2008 to 2018

Behzad Kiani, Amene Raouf Rahmati, Robert Bergquist, Soheil Hashtarkhani, Neda Firouraghi, Nasser Bagheri, Elham Moghaddas, Alireza Mohammadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)
17 Downloads (Pure)


Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in Iran between 2008 and 2018.

This cross-sectional study was conducted on aggregated TB data (50,500 patients) at the provincial level provided by the Ministry of Health in Iran between 2008 and 2018. The Anselin Local Moran’s I and Getis-Ord Gi* were performed to identify the spatial variations of the disease. Furthermore, spatial scan statistic was employed for purely temporal and spatio-temporal analyses. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤ 0.05.

The overall incidence rate of TB decreased from 13.46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 13.19–13.73) in 2008 to 10.88 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.65–11.11) in 2018. The highest incidence rate of TB was observed in southeast and northeast of Iran for the whole study period. Additionally, spatial cluster analysis discovered Khuzestan Province, in the West of the country, having significantly higher rates than neighbouring provinces in terms of both total TB and smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPTB). Purely temporal analysis showed that high-rate and low-rate clusters were predominantly distributed in the time periods 2010–2014 and 2017–2018. Spatio-temporal results showed that the statistically significant clusters were mainly distributed from centre to the east during the study period. Some high-trend TB and SPPTB statistically significant clusters were found.

The results provided an overview of the latest TB spatio-temporal status In Iran and identified decreasing trends of TB in the 2008–2018 period. Despite the decreasing incidence rate, there is still need for screening, and targeting of preventive interventions, especially in high-risk areas. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of TB can be useful for policy development as the information regarding the high-risk areas would contribute to the selection of areas needed to be targeted for the expansion of health facilities.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1093
Pages (from-to)1-20
Number of pages20
JournalBMC Public Health
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the tuberculosis incidence rate in Iran 2008 to 2018'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this