SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape

Jason Beringer, Jorg Hacker, Lindsay Hutley, Ray Leuning, Stefan Arndt, Reza Amiri, Lutz Bannehr, Lucas Cernusak, Samantha Grover, Carol Hensley, Darren Hocking, Peter Isaac, Hizbullah Jamali, Kasturi Kanniah, Stephen Livesley, Bruno Neininger, Kyaw Paw U, William Sea, Dennis Straten, Nigel Tapper & 3 others Richard Weinmann, Stephen Wood, Steve Zegelin

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    35 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Savannas are highly significant global ecosystems that consist of a mix of trees and grasses and that are highly spatially varied in their physical structure, species composition, and physiological function (i.e., leaf area and function, stem density, albedo, and roughness). Variability in ecosystem characteristics alters biophysical and biogeochemical processes that can affect regional to global circulation patterns, which are not well characterized by land surface models. We initiated a multidisciplinary field campaign called Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape (SPECIAL) during the dry season in Australian savannas to understand the spatial patterns and processes of land surfaceâ¿¿atmosphere exchanges (radiation, heat, moisture, CO2, and other trace gasses). We utilized a combination of multiscale measurements including fixed flux towers, aircraft-based flux transects, aircraft boundary layer budgets, and satellite remote sensing to quantify the spatial variability across a continental-scale rainfall gradient (transect). We found that the structure of vegetation changed along the transect in response to declining average rainfall. Tree basal area decreased from 9.6 m2 haâ¿¿1 in the coastal woodland savanna (annual rainfall 1,714 mm yrâ¿¿1) to 0 m2 haâ¿¿1 at the grassland site (annual rainfall 535 mm yrâ¿¿1), with dry-season green leaf area index (LAI) ranging from 1.04 to 0, respectively. Leaf-level measurements showed that photosynthetic properties were similar along the transect. Flux tower measurements showed that latent heat fluxes (LEs) decreased from north to south with resultant changes in the Bowen ratios (H/LE) from a minimum of 1.7 to a maximum of 15.8, respectively. Gross primary productivity, net carbon dioxide exchange, and LEshowed similar declines along the transect and were well correlated with canopy LAI, and fluxes were more closely coupled to structure than floristic change.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1467-1485
    Number of pages19
    JournalBulletin of the American Meteorological Society
    Volume92
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

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    savanna
    transect
    carbon
    rainfall
    energy
    leaf area index
    dry season
    aircraft
    Bowen ratio
    ecosystem
    latent heat flux
    basal area
    floristics
    leaf area
    roughness
    albedo
    land surface
    woodland
    boundary layer
    carbon dioxide

    Cite this

    Beringer, J., Hacker, J., Hutley, L., Leuning, R., Arndt, S., Amiri, R., ... Zegelin, S. (2011). SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 92, 1467-1485. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS2948.1
    Beringer, Jason ; Hacker, Jorg ; Hutley, Lindsay ; Leuning, Ray ; Arndt, Stefan ; Amiri, Reza ; Bannehr, Lutz ; Cernusak, Lucas ; Grover, Samantha ; Hensley, Carol ; Hocking, Darren ; Isaac, Peter ; Jamali, Hizbullah ; Kanniah, Kasturi ; Livesley, Stephen ; Neininger, Bruno ; Paw U, Kyaw ; Sea, William ; Straten, Dennis ; Tapper, Nigel ; Weinmann, Richard ; Wood, Stephen ; Zegelin, Steve. / SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape. In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 2011 ; Vol. 92. pp. 1467-1485.
    @article{db58a9d3b9e94de1af0fed7b54b1953b,
    title = "SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape",
    abstract = "Savannas are highly significant global ecosystems that consist of a mix of trees and grasses and that are highly spatially varied in their physical structure, species composition, and physiological function (i.e., leaf area and function, stem density, albedo, and roughness). Variability in ecosystem characteristics alters biophysical and biogeochemical processes that can affect regional to global circulation patterns, which are not well characterized by land surface models. We initiated a multidisciplinary field campaign called Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape (SPECIAL) during the dry season in Australian savannas to understand the spatial patterns and processes of land surface{\^a}¿¿atmosphere exchanges (radiation, heat, moisture, CO2, and other trace gasses). We utilized a combination of multiscale measurements including fixed flux towers, aircraft-based flux transects, aircraft boundary layer budgets, and satellite remote sensing to quantify the spatial variability across a continental-scale rainfall gradient (transect). We found that the structure of vegetation changed along the transect in response to declining average rainfall. Tree basal area decreased from 9.6 m2 ha{\^a}¿¿1 in the coastal woodland savanna (annual rainfall 1,714 mm yr{\^a}¿¿1) to 0 m2 ha{\^a}¿¿1 at the grassland site (annual rainfall 535 mm yr{\^a}¿¿1), with dry-season green leaf area index (LAI) ranging from 1.04 to 0, respectively. Leaf-level measurements showed that photosynthetic properties were similar along the transect. Flux tower measurements showed that latent heat fluxes (LEs) decreased from north to south with resultant changes in the Bowen ratios (H/LE) from a minimum of 1.7 to a maximum of 15.8, respectively. Gross primary productivity, net carbon dioxide exchange, and LEshowed similar declines along the transect and were well correlated with canopy LAI, and fluxes were more closely coupled to structure than floristic change.",
    author = "Jason Beringer and Jorg Hacker and Lindsay Hutley and Ray Leuning and Stefan Arndt and Reza Amiri and Lutz Bannehr and Lucas Cernusak and Samantha Grover and Carol Hensley and Darren Hocking and Peter Isaac and Hizbullah Jamali and Kasturi Kanniah and Stephen Livesley and Bruno Neininger and {Paw U}, Kyaw and William Sea and Dennis Straten and Nigel Tapper and Richard Weinmann and Stephen Wood and Steve Zegelin",
    year = "2011",
    doi = "10.1175/2011BAMS2948.1",
    language = "English",
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    pages = "1467--1485",
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    Beringer, J, Hacker, J, Hutley, L, Leuning, R, Arndt, S, Amiri, R, Bannehr, L, Cernusak, L, Grover, S, Hensley, C, Hocking, D, Isaac, P, Jamali, H, Kanniah, K, Livesley, S, Neininger, B, Paw U, K, Sea, W, Straten, D, Tapper, N, Weinmann, R, Wood, S & Zegelin, S 2011, 'SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape', Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, vol. 92, pp. 1467-1485. https://doi.org/10.1175/2011BAMS2948.1

    SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape. / Beringer, Jason; Hacker, Jorg; Hutley, Lindsay; Leuning, Ray; Arndt, Stefan; Amiri, Reza; Bannehr, Lutz; Cernusak, Lucas; Grover, Samantha; Hensley, Carol; Hocking, Darren; Isaac, Peter; Jamali, Hizbullah; Kanniah, Kasturi; Livesley, Stephen; Neininger, Bruno; Paw U, Kyaw; Sea, William; Straten, Dennis; Tapper, Nigel; Weinmann, Richard; Wood, Stephen; Zegelin, Steve.

    In: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 92, 2011, p. 1467-1485.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    T1 - SPECIAL-Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape

    AU - Beringer, Jason

    AU - Hacker, Jorg

    AU - Hutley, Lindsay

    AU - Leuning, Ray

    AU - Arndt, Stefan

    AU - Amiri, Reza

    AU - Bannehr, Lutz

    AU - Cernusak, Lucas

    AU - Grover, Samantha

    AU - Hensley, Carol

    AU - Hocking, Darren

    AU - Isaac, Peter

    AU - Jamali, Hizbullah

    AU - Kanniah, Kasturi

    AU - Livesley, Stephen

    AU - Neininger, Bruno

    AU - Paw U, Kyaw

    AU - Sea, William

    AU - Straten, Dennis

    AU - Tapper, Nigel

    AU - Weinmann, Richard

    AU - Wood, Stephen

    AU - Zegelin, Steve

    PY - 2011

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    N2 - Savannas are highly significant global ecosystems that consist of a mix of trees and grasses and that are highly spatially varied in their physical structure, species composition, and physiological function (i.e., leaf area and function, stem density, albedo, and roughness). Variability in ecosystem characteristics alters biophysical and biogeochemical processes that can affect regional to global circulation patterns, which are not well characterized by land surface models. We initiated a multidisciplinary field campaign called Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape (SPECIAL) during the dry season in Australian savannas to understand the spatial patterns and processes of land surfaceâ¿¿atmosphere exchanges (radiation, heat, moisture, CO2, and other trace gasses). We utilized a combination of multiscale measurements including fixed flux towers, aircraft-based flux transects, aircraft boundary layer budgets, and satellite remote sensing to quantify the spatial variability across a continental-scale rainfall gradient (transect). We found that the structure of vegetation changed along the transect in response to declining average rainfall. Tree basal area decreased from 9.6 m2 haâ¿¿1 in the coastal woodland savanna (annual rainfall 1,714 mm yrâ¿¿1) to 0 m2 haâ¿¿1 at the grassland site (annual rainfall 535 mm yrâ¿¿1), with dry-season green leaf area index (LAI) ranging from 1.04 to 0, respectively. Leaf-level measurements showed that photosynthetic properties were similar along the transect. Flux tower measurements showed that latent heat fluxes (LEs) decreased from north to south with resultant changes in the Bowen ratios (H/LE) from a minimum of 1.7 to a maximum of 15.8, respectively. Gross primary productivity, net carbon dioxide exchange, and LEshowed similar declines along the transect and were well correlated with canopy LAI, and fluxes were more closely coupled to structure than floristic change.

    AB - Savannas are highly significant global ecosystems that consist of a mix of trees and grasses and that are highly spatially varied in their physical structure, species composition, and physiological function (i.e., leaf area and function, stem density, albedo, and roughness). Variability in ecosystem characteristics alters biophysical and biogeochemical processes that can affect regional to global circulation patterns, which are not well characterized by land surface models. We initiated a multidisciplinary field campaign called Savanna Patterns of Energy and Carbon Integrated across the Landscape (SPECIAL) during the dry season in Australian savannas to understand the spatial patterns and processes of land surfaceâ¿¿atmosphere exchanges (radiation, heat, moisture, CO2, and other trace gasses). We utilized a combination of multiscale measurements including fixed flux towers, aircraft-based flux transects, aircraft boundary layer budgets, and satellite remote sensing to quantify the spatial variability across a continental-scale rainfall gradient (transect). We found that the structure of vegetation changed along the transect in response to declining average rainfall. Tree basal area decreased from 9.6 m2 haâ¿¿1 in the coastal woodland savanna (annual rainfall 1,714 mm yrâ¿¿1) to 0 m2 haâ¿¿1 at the grassland site (annual rainfall 535 mm yrâ¿¿1), with dry-season green leaf area index (LAI) ranging from 1.04 to 0, respectively. Leaf-level measurements showed that photosynthetic properties were similar along the transect. Flux tower measurements showed that latent heat fluxes (LEs) decreased from north to south with resultant changes in the Bowen ratios (H/LE) from a minimum of 1.7 to a maximum of 15.8, respectively. Gross primary productivity, net carbon dioxide exchange, and LEshowed similar declines along the transect and were well correlated with canopy LAI, and fluxes were more closely coupled to structure than floristic change.

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    JF - Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society

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