Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass

Laura GARVICAN, Yorck O. Schumacher, Sally A. Clark, Ryan Christian, Paolo Menaspa, James Plowman, B Stephens, Jiliang Qi, Rongyun Fan, Yingying He, David Martin, Kevin THOMPSON, Christopher Gore, Fuhai Ma

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    12 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Plasma volume (PV) can be modulated by altitude exposure (decrease) and periods of intense exercise (increase). Cycle racing at altitude combines both stimuli, although presently no data exist to document which is dominant. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and percent reticulocytes (%Retics) of altitude (ALT; n = 9) and sea-level (SL; n = 9) residents were measured during a 14-day cycling race, held at 1,146-4120 m, as well as during a simulated tour near sea level (SIM; n = 12). Hbmass was assessed before and on days 9 and 14 of racing. Venous blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 10, and 14. PV was calculated from Hbmass and [Hb]. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the impact of racing at altitude over time, within and between groups. [Hb] decreased significantly in all groups over time (P < 0.0001) with decreases evident on the third day of racing. %Retics increased significantly in SL only (P < 0.0001), with SL values elevated at day 6 compared with prerace (P = 0.02), but were suppressed by the end of the race (P = 0.0002). Hbmass significantly increased in SL after 9 (P = 0.0001) and 14 (P = 0.008) days of racing and was lower at the end of the race than midrace (P = 0.018). PV increased in all groups (P < 0.0001). Multiday cycle racing at altitude induces hemodilution of a similar magnitude to that observed during SL racing and occurs in nonacclimatized SL residents, despite an altitude-induced increase in Hbmass. Osmotic regulatory mechanisms associated with intense exercise appear to supersede acute enhancement of oxygen delivery at altitude.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)463-472
    Number of pages10
    JournalJournal of Applied Physiology
    Volume117
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2014

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    Hemodilution
    Hemoglobins
    Plasma Volume
    Oceans and Seas
    Exercise
    Reticulocytes
    Analysis of Variance
    Oxygen

    Cite this

    GARVICAN, L., Schumacher, Y. O., Clark, S. A., Christian, R., Menaspa, P., Plowman, J., ... Ma, F. (2014). Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass. Journal of Applied Physiology, 117(5), 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014
    GARVICAN, Laura ; Schumacher, Yorck O. ; Clark, Sally A. ; Christian, Ryan ; Menaspa, Paolo ; Plowman, James ; Stephens, B ; Qi, Jiliang ; Fan, Rongyun ; He, Yingying ; Martin, David ; THOMPSON, Kevin ; Gore, Christopher ; Ma, Fuhai. / Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass. In: Journal of Applied Physiology. 2014 ; Vol. 117, No. 5. pp. 463-472.
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    title = "Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass",
    abstract = "Plasma volume (PV) can be modulated by altitude exposure (decrease) and periods of intense exercise (increase). Cycle racing at altitude combines both stimuli, although presently no data exist to document which is dominant. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and percent reticulocytes ({\%}Retics) of altitude (ALT; n = 9) and sea-level (SL; n = 9) residents were measured during a 14-day cycling race, held at 1,146-4120 m, as well as during a simulated tour near sea level (SIM; n = 12). Hbmass was assessed before and on days 9 and 14 of racing. Venous blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 10, and 14. PV was calculated from Hbmass and [Hb]. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the impact of racing at altitude over time, within and between groups. [Hb] decreased significantly in all groups over time (P < 0.0001) with decreases evident on the third day of racing. {\%}Retics increased significantly in SL only (P < 0.0001), with SL values elevated at day 6 compared with prerace (P = 0.02), but were suppressed by the end of the race (P = 0.0002). Hbmass significantly increased in SL after 9 (P = 0.0001) and 14 (P = 0.008) days of racing and was lower at the end of the race than midrace (P = 0.018). PV increased in all groups (P < 0.0001). Multiday cycle racing at altitude induces hemodilution of a similar magnitude to that observed during SL racing and occurs in nonacclimatized SL residents, despite an altitude-induced increase in Hbmass. Osmotic regulatory mechanisms associated with intense exercise appear to supersede acute enhancement of oxygen delivery at altitude.",
    keywords = "Athlete biological passport, Erythropoiesis, Hemoglobin mass, Plasma volume",
    author = "Laura GARVICAN and Schumacher, {Yorck O.} and Clark, {Sally A.} and Ryan Christian and Paolo Menaspa and James Plowman and B Stephens and Jiliang Qi and Rongyun Fan and Yingying He and David Martin and Kevin THOMPSON and Christopher Gore and Fuhai Ma",
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    GARVICAN, L, Schumacher, YO, Clark, SA, Christian, R, Menaspa, P, Plowman, J, Stephens, B, Qi, J, Fan, R, He, Y, Martin, D, THOMPSON, K, Gore, C & Ma, F 2014, 'Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass', Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. 463-472. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014

    Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass. / GARVICAN, Laura; Schumacher, Yorck O.; Clark, Sally A.; Christian, Ryan; Menaspa, Paolo; Plowman, James; Stephens, B; Qi, Jiliang; Fan, Rongyun; He, Yingying; Martin, David; THOMPSON, Kevin; Gore, Christopher; Ma, Fuhai.

    In: Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 117, No. 5, 01.09.2014, p. 463-472.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass

    AU - GARVICAN, Laura

    AU - Schumacher, Yorck O.

    AU - Clark, Sally A.

    AU - Christian, Ryan

    AU - Menaspa, Paolo

    AU - Plowman, James

    AU - Stephens, B

    AU - Qi, Jiliang

    AU - Fan, Rongyun

    AU - He, Yingying

    AU - Martin, David

    AU - THOMPSON, Kevin

    AU - Gore, Christopher

    AU - Ma, Fuhai

    N1 - Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

    PY - 2014/9/1

    Y1 - 2014/9/1

    N2 - Plasma volume (PV) can be modulated by altitude exposure (decrease) and periods of intense exercise (increase). Cycle racing at altitude combines both stimuli, although presently no data exist to document which is dominant. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and percent reticulocytes (%Retics) of altitude (ALT; n = 9) and sea-level (SL; n = 9) residents were measured during a 14-day cycling race, held at 1,146-4120 m, as well as during a simulated tour near sea level (SIM; n = 12). Hbmass was assessed before and on days 9 and 14 of racing. Venous blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 10, and 14. PV was calculated from Hbmass and [Hb]. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the impact of racing at altitude over time, within and between groups. [Hb] decreased significantly in all groups over time (P < 0.0001) with decreases evident on the third day of racing. %Retics increased significantly in SL only (P < 0.0001), with SL values elevated at day 6 compared with prerace (P = 0.02), but were suppressed by the end of the race (P = 0.0002). Hbmass significantly increased in SL after 9 (P = 0.0001) and 14 (P = 0.008) days of racing and was lower at the end of the race than midrace (P = 0.018). PV increased in all groups (P < 0.0001). Multiday cycle racing at altitude induces hemodilution of a similar magnitude to that observed during SL racing and occurs in nonacclimatized SL residents, despite an altitude-induced increase in Hbmass. Osmotic regulatory mechanisms associated with intense exercise appear to supersede acute enhancement of oxygen delivery at altitude.

    AB - Plasma volume (PV) can be modulated by altitude exposure (decrease) and periods of intense exercise (increase). Cycle racing at altitude combines both stimuli, although presently no data exist to document which is dominant. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass), hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), and percent reticulocytes (%Retics) of altitude (ALT; n = 9) and sea-level (SL; n = 9) residents were measured during a 14-day cycling race, held at 1,146-4120 m, as well as during a simulated tour near sea level (SIM; n = 12). Hbmass was assessed before and on days 9 and 14 of racing. Venous blood was collected on days 0, 3, 6, 10, and 14. PV was calculated from Hbmass and [Hb]. A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the impact of racing at altitude over time, within and between groups. [Hb] decreased significantly in all groups over time (P < 0.0001) with decreases evident on the third day of racing. %Retics increased significantly in SL only (P < 0.0001), with SL values elevated at day 6 compared with prerace (P = 0.02), but were suppressed by the end of the race (P = 0.0002). Hbmass significantly increased in SL after 9 (P = 0.0001) and 14 (P = 0.008) days of racing and was lower at the end of the race than midrace (P = 0.018). PV increased in all groups (P < 0.0001). Multiday cycle racing at altitude induces hemodilution of a similar magnitude to that observed during SL racing and occurs in nonacclimatized SL residents, despite an altitude-induced increase in Hbmass. Osmotic regulatory mechanisms associated with intense exercise appear to supersede acute enhancement of oxygen delivery at altitude.

    KW - Athlete biological passport

    KW - Erythropoiesis

    KW - Hemoglobin mass

    KW - Plasma volume

    U2 - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014

    DO - 10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014

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    JO - Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology

    JF - Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology

    SN - 1522-1601

    IS - 5

    ER -

    GARVICAN L, Schumacher YO, Clark SA, Christian R, Menaspa P, Plowman J et al. Stage racing at altitude induces hemodilution despite an increase in hemoglobin mass. Journal of Applied Physiology. 2014 Sep 1;117(5):463-472. https://doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00242.2014