The sample included 18 male (42%) and 25 female (58%) patients from Wrexham and Salford (UK), all with chronic wounds that required frequent dressing changes. Physiological and psychological measurements of pain and stress, including numerical ratings (for stress and pain), heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and a questionnaire survey of state and trait anxiety and of chronic stress were recorded at dressing change and in a control condition (at least 24 hours before/after dressing change during a period of rest).
UPTON, D., Solowiej, K., Hender, C., & Woodyatt, K. Y. (2012). Stress and pain associated with dressing change in patients with chronic wounds. Journal of Wound Care, 21(2), 53-61. https://doi.org/10.12968/jowc.2012.21.2.53