Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters

Daniela Bertoldi, Luana Bontempo, Roberto Larcher, Giorgio Nicolini, Susanne Voerkelius, Gesine D. Lorenz, Henriette Ueckermann, Heinz Froeschl, Malcolm J. Baxter, Jurian Hoogewerff, Paul Brereton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

36 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

As part of the European TRACE project (Tracing Food commodities in Europe, VI FP, Contract N. 006942), this paper provides a wide-ranging survey of the chemical composition of 571 mineral waters bottled and marketed in 23 European countries, and discusses 39 compositional parameters (specific electric conductivity, pH, hardness, total alkalinity, ammonia, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Tl, U, V, Yb, Zn) mainly referring to legal limits and nutritional implications. According to European legislation 58.1% of samples could be defined as 'suitable for a low-sodium diet' while 8.1% could be defined as 'containing sodium', 13.7% could be labelled as 'containing magnesium', 10.2% as 'containing fluoride', 4.9% as 'containing chloride', 13.5% as 'containing sulphate' and 17.5% as 'containing calcium'. 2.8% of samples did not conform with European Community limits for at least one parameter (Se, NO2 -, Mn, Ni, Ba, F and NO3 -). About 9% of samples had boron, nitrate or nitrite levels above the legal limit existing in individual European countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)376-385
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Volume24
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2011
Externally publishedYes

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Mineral Waters
mineral water
Nitrites
Fluorides
Drinking Water
Nitrates
Sulfates
Chlorides
chemical composition
fluorides
Sodium-Restricted Diet
nitrites
Electric Conductivity
Boron
sulfates
chlorides
Hardness
European Union
Contracts
Legislation

Cite this

Bertoldi, D., Bontempo, L., Larcher, R., Nicolini, G., Voerkelius, S., Lorenz, G. D., ... Brereton, P. (2011). Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, 24(3), 376-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.07.005
Bertoldi, Daniela ; Bontempo, Luana ; Larcher, Roberto ; Nicolini, Giorgio ; Voerkelius, Susanne ; Lorenz, Gesine D. ; Ueckermann, Henriette ; Froeschl, Heinz ; Baxter, Malcolm J. ; Hoogewerff, Jurian ; Brereton, Paul. / Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters. In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2011 ; Vol. 24, No. 3. pp. 376-385.
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Bertoldi, D, Bontempo, L, Larcher, R, Nicolini, G, Voerkelius, S, Lorenz, GD, Ueckermann, H, Froeschl, H, Baxter, MJ, Hoogewerff, J & Brereton, P 2011, 'Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters', Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 376-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.07.005

Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters. / Bertoldi, Daniela; Bontempo, Luana; Larcher, Roberto; Nicolini, Giorgio; Voerkelius, Susanne; Lorenz, Gesine D.; Ueckermann, Henriette; Froeschl, Heinz; Baxter, Malcolm J.; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Brereton, Paul.

In: Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Vol. 24, No. 3, 01.05.2011, p. 376-385.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters

AU - Bertoldi, Daniela

AU - Bontempo, Luana

AU - Larcher, Roberto

AU - Nicolini, Giorgio

AU - Voerkelius, Susanne

AU - Lorenz, Gesine D.

AU - Ueckermann, Henriette

AU - Froeschl, Heinz

AU - Baxter, Malcolm J.

AU - Hoogewerff, Jurian

AU - Brereton, Paul

PY - 2011/5/1

Y1 - 2011/5/1

N2 - As part of the European TRACE project (Tracing Food commodities in Europe, VI FP, Contract N. 006942), this paper provides a wide-ranging survey of the chemical composition of 571 mineral waters bottled and marketed in 23 European countries, and discusses 39 compositional parameters (specific electric conductivity, pH, hardness, total alkalinity, ammonia, chloride, fluoride, nitrate, nitrite, sulphate, Ca, K, Mg, Na, Al, B, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cs, Cu, La, Li, Lu, Mn, Mo, Nd, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sm, Sr, Tl, U, V, Yb, Zn) mainly referring to legal limits and nutritional implications. According to European legislation 58.1% of samples could be defined as 'suitable for a low-sodium diet' while 8.1% could be defined as 'containing sodium', 13.7% could be labelled as 'containing magnesium', 10.2% as 'containing fluoride', 4.9% as 'containing chloride', 13.5% as 'containing sulphate' and 17.5% as 'containing calcium'. 2.8% of samples did not conform with European Community limits for at least one parameter (Se, NO2 -, Mn, Ni, Ba, F and NO3 -). About 9% of samples had boron, nitrate or nitrite levels above the legal limit existing in individual European countries.

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KW - Food analysis

KW - Food composition

KW - Health concern

KW - Inorganic composition

KW - Mineral waters

KW - Nutrition

KW - Product analysis

KW - Regulation

KW - Trace elements

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Bertoldi D, Bontempo L, Larcher R, Nicolini G, Voerkelius S, Lorenz GD et al. Survey of the chemical composition of 571 European bottled mineral waters. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2011 May 1;24(3):376-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfca.2010.07.005