Swimming Training Assessment

The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers

Rodrigo Zacca, Ricardo Fernandes, David Pyne, Flávio Castro

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    6 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016 - To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (Vo 2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV 4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T 400) for CV 4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T 400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV 4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s -1. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV 4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T 400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV 4par calculated through a single T 400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s -1, p 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s -1 when plotted against CV 4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV 4par 0.92 × v400. A single T 400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV 4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1365-1372
    Number of pages8
    JournalJournal of Strength and Conditioning Research
    Volume30
    Issue number5
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - May 2016

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    Age Groups
    Heart Rate
    Oxygen Consumption
    Lactic Acid

    Cite this

    Zacca, Rodrigo ; Fernandes, Ricardo ; Pyne, David ; Castro, Flávio. / Swimming Training Assessment : The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers. In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2016 ; Vol. 30, No. 5. pp. 1365-1372.
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    title = "Swimming Training Assessment: The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers",
    abstract = "Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016 - To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (Vo 2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV 4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T 400) for CV 4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T 400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV 4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s -1. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV 4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2{\%} of the mean swimming speed of T 400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV 4par calculated through a single T 400 (92{\%}v400) showed excellent agreement (r 0.30; 95{\%} CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s -1, p 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2{\%}), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s -1 when plotted against CV 4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV 4par 0.92 × v400. A single T 400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV 4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.",
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    Swimming Training Assessment : The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers. / Zacca, Rodrigo; Fernandes, Ricardo; Pyne, David; Castro, Flávio.

    In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Vol. 30, No. 5, 05.2016, p. 1365-1372.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Swimming Training Assessment

    T2 - The Critical Velocity and the 400-m Test for Age-Group Swimmers

    AU - Zacca, Rodrigo

    AU - Fernandes, Ricardo

    AU - Pyne, David

    AU - Castro, Flávio

    PY - 2016/5

    Y1 - 2016/5

    N2 - Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016 - To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (Vo 2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV 4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T 400) for CV 4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T 400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV 4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s -1. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV 4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T 400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV 4par calculated through a single T 400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s -1, p 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s -1 when plotted against CV 4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV 4par 0.92 × v400. A single T 400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV 4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

    AB - Zacca, R, Fernandes, RJP, Pyne, DB, and Castro, FAdS. Swimming training assessment: the critical velocity and the 400-m test for age-group swimmers. J Strength Cond Res 30(5): 1365-1372, 2016 - To verify the metabolic responses of oxygen consumption (Vo 2), heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentrations [La], and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) when swimming at an intensity corresponding to the critical velocity (CV) assessed by a 4-parameter model (CV 4par), and to check the reliability when using only a single 400-m maximal front crawl bout (T 400) for CV 4par assessment in age-group swimmers. Ten age-group swimmers (14-16 years old) performed 50-, 100-, 200-, 400- (T 400), 800-, and 1,500-m maximal front crawl bouts to calculate CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured immediately after bouts. Swimmers then performed 3 × 10-minute front crawl (45 seconds rest) at CV 4par. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were measured after 10 minutes of rest (Rest), warm-up (Pre), each 10-minute repetition, and at the end of the test (Post). CV 4par was 1.33 ± 0.08 m·s -1. Vo 2, HR, [La], and RPE were similar between first 10-minute and Post time points in the 3 × 10-minute protocol. CV 4par was equivalent to 92 ± 2% of the mean swimming speed of T 400 (v400) for these swimmers. CV 4par calculated through a single T 400 (92%v400) showed excellent agreement (r 0.30; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.05 m·s -1, p 0.39), low coefficient of variation (2%), and root mean square error of 0.02 ± 0.01 m·s -1 when plotted against CV 4par assessed through a 4-parameter model. These results generated the equation CV 4par 0.92 × v400. A single T 400 can be used reliably to estimate the CV 4par typically derived with 6 efforts in age-group swimmers.

    KW - Adolescent

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    KW - Heart Rate

    KW - Humans

    KW - Lactic Acid

    KW - Male

    KW - Oxygen Consumption

    KW - Reproducibility of Results

    KW - Swimming

    KW - Journal Article

    KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    KW - exercise physiology

    KW - front crawl

    KW - aerobic power

    KW - training and testing

    KW - aerobic capacity

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