Objective: Physical and natural environments might strongly influence mental health and well-being. Many studies have examined this relationship in urban environments, with fewer focused on rural settings. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesise quantitative evidence for the relationship between environmental factors (drought, climate and extreme weather events, land use/environmental degradation, green space/vegetation, engagement in natural resource management activities) and mental health or well-being in rural areas. Design: Following a systematic search of three databases (PsycINFO, MEDLINE and Web of Science), 4368 articles were identified, of which 28 met eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review. Results: Poorer mental health and well-being was typically found to have an association with extreme climate or weather events and environmental degradation. The observed relationships were largely assessed at area-wide or community levels. Conclusions: Studies examining the relationship between the environmental condition of land and mental health at an individual level, particularly within farms, are lacking. Addressing this gap in research requires interdisciplinary expertise and diverse methodology. Few studies examined the effects of natural resource management practices/principles or biodiversity on mental health. While there is evidence that extreme climate or weather events have a negative impact on mental health in rural areas, there remain considerable gaps in our knowledge of how rural environments influence mental health and well-being.