Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training

Erin McCleave, Katie Slattery, Rob Duffield, Philo SAUNDERS, Avish Sharma, Stephen Crowcroft, Aaron Coutts-Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during “live high, train low” (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptations as compared with heat or temperate training. Methods: Twenty-six well-trained runners completed 3 wk of interval training assigned to one of three conditions: 1) LHTL hypoxic exposure plus heat training (H + H; 3000 m for 13 h·d−1, train at 33°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), 2) heat training with no hypoxic exposure (HOT, live at <600 m and train at 33°C, 60% RH), or 3) temperate training with no hypoxic exposure (CONT; live at <600 m and train at 14°C, 55% RH). Performance 3-km time-trials (3-km TT), running economy, hemoglobin mass, and plasma volume were assessed using magnitude-based inferences statistical approach before (Baseline), after (Post), and 3 wk (3wkP) after exposure. Results: Compared with Baseline, 3-km TT performance was likely increased in HOT at 3wkP (−3.3% ± 1.3%; mean ± 90% confidence interval), with no performance improvement in either H + H or CONT. Hemoglobin mass increased by 3.8% ± 1.8% at Post in H + H only. Plasma volume in HOT was possibly elevated above H + H and CONT at Post but not at 3wkP. Correlations between changes in 3-km TT performance and physiological adaptations were unclear. Conclusion: Incorporating heat-based training into a 3-wk training block can improve temperate performance at 3 wk after exposure, with athlete psychology, physiology, and environmental dose all important considerations. Despite hematological adaptations, the addition of LHTL to heat interval training has no greater 3-km TT performance benefit than temperate training alone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-517
Number of pages9
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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Hot Temperature
Humidity
Physiological Adaptation
Plasma Volume
Athletes
Hemoglobins
Confidence Intervals

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McCleave, E., Slattery, K., Duffield, R., SAUNDERS, P., Sharma, A., Crowcroft, S., & Coutts-Smith, A. (2017). Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 49(3), 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001138
McCleave, Erin ; Slattery, Katie ; Duffield, Rob ; SAUNDERS, Philo ; Sharma, Avish ; Crowcroft, Stephen ; Coutts-Smith, Aaron. / Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2017 ; Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 509-517.
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abstract = "Purpose: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during “live high, train low” (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptations as compared with heat or temperate training. Methods: Twenty-six well-trained runners completed 3 wk of interval training assigned to one of three conditions: 1) LHTL hypoxic exposure plus heat training (H + H; 3000 m for 13 h·d−1, train at 33°C, 60{\%} relative humidity [RH]), 2) heat training with no hypoxic exposure (HOT, live at <600 m and train at 33°C, 60{\%} RH), or 3) temperate training with no hypoxic exposure (CONT; live at <600 m and train at 14°C, 55{\%} RH). Performance 3-km time-trials (3-km TT), running economy, hemoglobin mass, and plasma volume were assessed using magnitude-based inferences statistical approach before (Baseline), after (Post), and 3 wk (3wkP) after exposure. Results: Compared with Baseline, 3-km TT performance was likely increased in HOT at 3wkP (−3.3{\%} ± 1.3{\%}; mean ± 90{\%} confidence interval), with no performance improvement in either H + H or CONT. Hemoglobin mass increased by 3.8{\%} ± 1.8{\%} at Post in H + H only. Plasma volume in HOT was possibly elevated above H + H and CONT at Post but not at 3wkP. Correlations between changes in 3-km TT performance and physiological adaptations were unclear. Conclusion: Incorporating heat-based training into a 3-wk training block can improve temperate performance at 3 wk after exposure, with athlete psychology, physiology, and environmental dose all important considerations. Despite hematological adaptations, the addition of LHTL to heat interval training has no greater 3-km TT performance benefit than temperate training alone.",
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McCleave, E, Slattery, K, Duffield, R, SAUNDERS, P, Sharma, A, Crowcroft, S & Coutts-Smith, A 2017, 'Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training', Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 509-517. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001138

Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training. / McCleave, Erin; Slattery, Katie; Duffield, Rob; SAUNDERS, Philo; Sharma, Avish; Crowcroft, Stephen; Coutts-Smith, Aaron.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2017, p. 509-517.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Temperate Performance Benefits after Heat, but Not Combined Heat and Hypoxic Training

AU - McCleave, Erin

AU - Slattery, Katie

AU - Duffield, Rob

AU - SAUNDERS, Philo

AU - Sharma, Avish

AU - Crowcroft, Stephen

AU - Coutts-Smith, Aaron

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N2 - Purpose: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during “live high, train low” (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptations as compared with heat or temperate training. Methods: Twenty-six well-trained runners completed 3 wk of interval training assigned to one of three conditions: 1) LHTL hypoxic exposure plus heat training (H + H; 3000 m for 13 h·d−1, train at 33°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), 2) heat training with no hypoxic exposure (HOT, live at <600 m and train at 33°C, 60% RH), or 3) temperate training with no hypoxic exposure (CONT; live at <600 m and train at 14°C, 55% RH). Performance 3-km time-trials (3-km TT), running economy, hemoglobin mass, and plasma volume were assessed using magnitude-based inferences statistical approach before (Baseline), after (Post), and 3 wk (3wkP) after exposure. Results: Compared with Baseline, 3-km TT performance was likely increased in HOT at 3wkP (−3.3% ± 1.3%; mean ± 90% confidence interval), with no performance improvement in either H + H or CONT. Hemoglobin mass increased by 3.8% ± 1.8% at Post in H + H only. Plasma volume in HOT was possibly elevated above H + H and CONT at Post but not at 3wkP. Correlations between changes in 3-km TT performance and physiological adaptations were unclear. Conclusion: Incorporating heat-based training into a 3-wk training block can improve temperate performance at 3 wk after exposure, with athlete psychology, physiology, and environmental dose all important considerations. Despite hematological adaptations, the addition of LHTL to heat interval training has no greater 3-km TT performance benefit than temperate training alone.

AB - Purpose: Independent heat and hypoxic exposure can enhance temperate endurance performance in trained athletes, although their combined effects remain unknown. This study examined whether the addition of heat interval training during “live high, train low” (LHTL) hypoxic exposure would result in enhanced performance and physiological adaptations as compared with heat or temperate training. Methods: Twenty-six well-trained runners completed 3 wk of interval training assigned to one of three conditions: 1) LHTL hypoxic exposure plus heat training (H + H; 3000 m for 13 h·d−1, train at 33°C, 60% relative humidity [RH]), 2) heat training with no hypoxic exposure (HOT, live at <600 m and train at 33°C, 60% RH), or 3) temperate training with no hypoxic exposure (CONT; live at <600 m and train at 14°C, 55% RH). Performance 3-km time-trials (3-km TT), running economy, hemoglobin mass, and plasma volume were assessed using magnitude-based inferences statistical approach before (Baseline), after (Post), and 3 wk (3wkP) after exposure. Results: Compared with Baseline, 3-km TT performance was likely increased in HOT at 3wkP (−3.3% ± 1.3%; mean ± 90% confidence interval), with no performance improvement in either H + H or CONT. Hemoglobin mass increased by 3.8% ± 1.8% at Post in H + H only. Plasma volume in HOT was possibly elevated above H + H and CONT at Post but not at 3wkP. Correlations between changes in 3-km TT performance and physiological adaptations were unclear. Conclusion: Incorporating heat-based training into a 3-wk training block can improve temperate performance at 3 wk after exposure, with athlete psychology, physiology, and environmental dose all important considerations. Despite hematological adaptations, the addition of LHTL to heat interval training has no greater 3-km TT performance benefit than temperate training alone.

KW - ENDURANCE

KW - HEAT ACCLIMATION

KW - HEMOGLOBIN MASS

KW - HYPOXIA

KW - PLASMA VOLUME

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