Metal artifact reduction (MAR) methods are used to reduce artifacts from metals or metal components in computed tomography (CT). In radiotherapy (RT), CT is the most used imaging modality for planning, whose quality is often affected by metal artifacts. The aim of this study is to systematically review the impact of MAR methods on CT Hounsfield Unit values, contouring of regions of interest, and dose calculation for RT applications. This systematic review is performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines; the PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched using the main keywords “metal artifact reduction”, “computed tomography” and “radiotherapy”. A total of 382 publications were identified, of which 40 (including one review article) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The selected publications (except for the review article) were grouped into two main categories: commercial MAR methods and research-based MAR methods. Conclusion: The application of MAR methods on CT scans can improve treatment planning quality in RT. However, none of the investigated or proposed MAR methods was completely satisfactory for RT applications because of limitations such as the introduction of other errors (e.g., other artifacts) or image quality degradation (e.g., blurring), and further research is still necessary to overcome these challenges.