The ball in play demands of international rugby union

Benjamin T Pollard, Anthony N Turner, Robin Eager, Daniel J Cunningham, Christian J Cook, Patrick Hogben, Liam P Kilduff

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    2 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a high intensity intermittent sport, typically analysed via set time periods or rolling average methods. This study reports the demands of international rugby union via global positioning system (GPS) metrics expressed as mean ball in play (BiP), maximum BiP (max BiP), and whole match outputs.

    DESIGN: Single cohort cross sectional study involving 22 international players, categorised as forwards and backs.

    METHODS: A total of 88 GPS files from eight international test matches were collected during 2016. An Opta sportscode timeline was integrated into the GPS software to split the data into BiP periods. Metres per min (mmin-1), high metabolic load per min (HML), accelerations per min (Acc), high speed running per min (HSR), and collisions per min (Coll) were expressed relative to BiP periods and over the whole match (>60min).

    RESULTS: Whole match metrics were significantly lower than all BiP metrics (p<0.001). Mean and max BiP HML, (p<0.01) and HSR (p<0.05) were significantly higher for backs versus forwards, whereas Coll were significantly higher for forwards (p<0.001). In plays lasting 61s or greater, max BiP mmin-1were higher for backs. Max BiP mmin-1, HML, HSR and Coll were all time dependant (p<0.05) showing that both movement metrics and collision demands differ as length of play continues.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a novel method of accurately assessing the BiP demands of rugby union. It also reports typical and maximal demands of international rugby union that can be used by practitioners and scientists to target training of worst-case scenario's equivalent to international intensity. Backs covered greater distances at higher speeds and demonstrated higher HML, in general play as well as 'worst case scenarios'; conversely forwards perform a higher number of collisions.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number1821
    Number of pages5
    JournalAustralian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
    DOIs
    Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Mar 2018

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    Football
    Geographic Information Systems
    Running
    Sports
    Software
    Cross-Sectional Studies

    Cite this

    Pollard, B. T., Turner, A. N., Eager, R., Cunningham, D. J., Cook, C. J., Hogben, P., & Kilduff, L. P. (2018). The ball in play demands of international rugby union. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, [1821]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2018.02.015
    Pollard, Benjamin T ; Turner, Anthony N ; Eager, Robin ; Cunningham, Daniel J ; Cook, Christian J ; Hogben, Patrick ; Kilduff, Liam P. / The ball in play demands of international rugby union. In: Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2018.
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    title = "The ball in play demands of international rugby union",
    abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a high intensity intermittent sport, typically analysed via set time periods or rolling average methods. This study reports the demands of international rugby union via global positioning system (GPS) metrics expressed as mean ball in play (BiP), maximum BiP (max BiP), and whole match outputs.DESIGN: Single cohort cross sectional study involving 22 international players, categorised as forwards and backs.METHODS: A total of 88 GPS files from eight international test matches were collected during 2016. An Opta sportscode timeline was integrated into the GPS software to split the data into BiP periods. Metres per min (mmin-1), high metabolic load per min (HML), accelerations per min (Acc), high speed running per min (HSR), and collisions per min (Coll) were expressed relative to BiP periods and over the whole match (>60min).RESULTS: Whole match metrics were significantly lower than all BiP metrics (p<0.001). Mean and max BiP HML, (p<0.01) and HSR (p<0.05) were significantly higher for backs versus forwards, whereas Coll were significantly higher for forwards (p<0.001). In plays lasting 61s or greater, max BiP mmin-1were higher for backs. Max BiP mmin-1, HML, HSR and Coll were all time dependant (p<0.05) showing that both movement metrics and collision demands differ as length of play continues.CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a novel method of accurately assessing the BiP demands of rugby union. It also reports typical and maximal demands of international rugby union that can be used by practitioners and scientists to target training of worst-case scenario's equivalent to international intensity. Backs covered greater distances at higher speeds and demonstrated higher HML, in general play as well as 'worst case scenarios'; conversely forwards perform a higher number of collisions.",
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    note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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    The ball in play demands of international rugby union. / Pollard, Benjamin T; Turner, Anthony N; Eager, Robin; Cunningham, Daniel J; Cook, Christian J; Hogben, Patrick; Kilduff, Liam P.

    In: Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 03.03.2018.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The ball in play demands of international rugby union

    AU - Pollard, Benjamin T

    AU - Turner, Anthony N

    AU - Eager, Robin

    AU - Cunningham, Daniel J

    AU - Cook, Christian J

    AU - Hogben, Patrick

    AU - Kilduff, Liam P

    N1 - Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    PY - 2018/3/3

    Y1 - 2018/3/3

    N2 - OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a high intensity intermittent sport, typically analysed via set time periods or rolling average methods. This study reports the demands of international rugby union via global positioning system (GPS) metrics expressed as mean ball in play (BiP), maximum BiP (max BiP), and whole match outputs.DESIGN: Single cohort cross sectional study involving 22 international players, categorised as forwards and backs.METHODS: A total of 88 GPS files from eight international test matches were collected during 2016. An Opta sportscode timeline was integrated into the GPS software to split the data into BiP periods. Metres per min (mmin-1), high metabolic load per min (HML), accelerations per min (Acc), high speed running per min (HSR), and collisions per min (Coll) were expressed relative to BiP periods and over the whole match (>60min).RESULTS: Whole match metrics were significantly lower than all BiP metrics (p<0.001). Mean and max BiP HML, (p<0.01) and HSR (p<0.05) were significantly higher for backs versus forwards, whereas Coll were significantly higher for forwards (p<0.001). In plays lasting 61s or greater, max BiP mmin-1were higher for backs. Max BiP mmin-1, HML, HSR and Coll were all time dependant (p<0.05) showing that both movement metrics and collision demands differ as length of play continues.CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a novel method of accurately assessing the BiP demands of rugby union. It also reports typical and maximal demands of international rugby union that can be used by practitioners and scientists to target training of worst-case scenario's equivalent to international intensity. Backs covered greater distances at higher speeds and demonstrated higher HML, in general play as well as 'worst case scenarios'; conversely forwards perform a higher number of collisions.

    AB - OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a high intensity intermittent sport, typically analysed via set time periods or rolling average methods. This study reports the demands of international rugby union via global positioning system (GPS) metrics expressed as mean ball in play (BiP), maximum BiP (max BiP), and whole match outputs.DESIGN: Single cohort cross sectional study involving 22 international players, categorised as forwards and backs.METHODS: A total of 88 GPS files from eight international test matches were collected during 2016. An Opta sportscode timeline was integrated into the GPS software to split the data into BiP periods. Metres per min (mmin-1), high metabolic load per min (HML), accelerations per min (Acc), high speed running per min (HSR), and collisions per min (Coll) were expressed relative to BiP periods and over the whole match (>60min).RESULTS: Whole match metrics were significantly lower than all BiP metrics (p<0.001). Mean and max BiP HML, (p<0.01) and HSR (p<0.05) were significantly higher for backs versus forwards, whereas Coll were significantly higher for forwards (p<0.001). In plays lasting 61s or greater, max BiP mmin-1were higher for backs. Max BiP mmin-1, HML, HSR and Coll were all time dependant (p<0.05) showing that both movement metrics and collision demands differ as length of play continues.CONCLUSIONS: This study uses a novel method of accurately assessing the BiP demands of rugby union. It also reports typical and maximal demands of international rugby union that can be used by practitioners and scientists to target training of worst-case scenario's equivalent to international intensity. Backs covered greater distances at higher speeds and demonstrated higher HML, in general play as well as 'worst case scenarios'; conversely forwards perform a higher number of collisions.

    KW - GPS analysis

    KW - Collisions

    KW - Movement patterns

    KW - Worst case scenario

    U2 - 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.02.015

    DO - 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.02.015

    M3 - Article

    JO - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    JF - Australian Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport

    SN - 1440-2440

    M1 - 1821

    ER -