Although seafood is considered to be an important part of a healthy and balanced diet, many Australians still do not consume the recommended amounts for good health. Fish is an excellent source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients, and studies have shown that seafood-rich diets can have a lower impact on the environment than diets high in other animal proteins. Concerns about health and sustainability have led to an increased interest in understanding consumers' attitudes toward seafood. This review aims to assess the current knowledge on drivers and barriers to seafood consumption in the Australian context. Systematic search strategies were used to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles from three electronic databases (SCOPUS, Web of Science and Science Direct) and grey literature reports from targeted government and industry websites. Accepted studies investigated drivers and/or barriers to seafood consumption in Australia through qualitative, quantitative, or mixed method designs. Initial searches identified 504 publications from which fourteen met the criteria for the review process. The reviewed studies revealed that influences on seafood consumption in Australia are similar to those identified in other developed countries. The leading drivers of seafood consumption are health, taste, and convenience, while the main barriers are price, availability, concerns about quality, and a lack of confidence in selecting and preparing seafood. Some possible intervention strategies targeted toward these factors are explored in the discussion. Future research should focus on designing and implementing specific interventions so that their effectiveness in increasing seafood consumption in Australia can be assessed.