The conservation status of the world's reptiles

Monika Böhm, Ben Collen, Jonathan E M Baillie, Philip Bowles, Janice Chanson, Neil Cox, Geoffrey Hammerson, Michael Hoffmann, Suzanne R. Livingstone, Mala Ram, Anders G J Rhodin, Simon N. Stuart, Peter Paul van Dijk, Bruce E. Young, Leticia E. Afuang, Aram Aghasyan, Andrés García, César Aguilar, Rastko Ajtic, Ferdi Akarsu & 223 others Laura R V Alencar, Allen Allison, Natalia Ananjeva, Steve Anderson, Claes Andren, Daniel Ariano-Sánchez, Juan Camilo Arredondo, Mark Auliya, Christopher C. Austin, Aziz Avci, Patrick J. Baker, André F. Barreto-Lima, César L. Barrio-Amorós, Dhruvayothi Basu, Michael F. Bates, Alexandre Batistella, Aaron Bauer, Daniel Bennett, Wolfgang Böhme, Don Broadley, Rafe Brown, Joseph Burgess, Ashok Captain, Santiago Carreira, Maria del Rosario Castañeda, Fernando Castro, Alessandro Catenazzi, José R. Cedeño-Vázquez, David G. Chapple, Marc Cheylan, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, Dan Cogalniceanu, Hal Cogger, Claudia Corti, Gabriel C. Costa, Patrick J. Couper, Tony Courtney, Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Pierre André Crochet, Brian Crother, Felix Cruz, Jennifer C. Daltry, R. J Ranjit Daniels, Indraneil Das, Anslem de Silva, Arvin C. Diesmos, Lutz Dirksen, Tiffany M. Doan, C. Kenneth Dodd, Michael E. Dorcas, Jose Duarte de Barros Filho, Vincent Egan, El Hassan El Mouden, Dirk Embert, Robert E. Espinoza, Alejandro Fallabrino, Xie Feng, Zhao Jun Feng, Lee Fitzgerald, Oscar Flores-Villela, Frederico G R França, Darrell Frost, Hector Gadsden, Tony Gamble, S. R. Ganesh, Miguel Garcia, Juan E. García-Pérez, Joey Gatus, Maren Gaulke, Philippe Geniez, Arthur GEORGES, Justin Gerlach, Stephen Goldberg, Juan Carlos T Gonzalez, David J. Gower, Tandora Grant, Eli Greenbaum, Cristina Grieco, Peng Guo, Alison M. Hamilton, Kelly Hare, S. Blair Hedges, Neil Heideman, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Rod Hitchmough, Bradford Hollingsworth, Mark Hutchinson, Ivan Ineich, John Iverson, Fabian M. Jaksic, Richard Jenkins, Ulrich Joger, Reizl Jose, Yakup Kaska, U?ur Kaya, J. Scott Keogh, Gunther Köhler, Gerald Kuchling, Yusuf Kumluta?, Axel Kwet, Enrique La Marca, William Lamar, Amanda Lane, Bjorn Lardner, Craig Latta, Gabrielle Latta, Michael Lau, Pablo Lavin, Dwight Lawson, Matthew LeBreton, Edgar Lehr, Duncan Limpus, Nicola Lipczynski, Aaron S. Lobo, Marco A. López-Luna, Luca Luiselli, Vimoksalehi Lukoschek, Mikael Lundberg, Petros Lymberakis, Robert Macey, William E. Magnusson, D. Luke Mahler, Anita Malhotra, Jean Mariaux, Bryan Maritz, Otavio A V Marques, Rafael Márquez, Marcio Martins, Gavin Masterson, José A. Mateo, Rosamma Mathew, Nixon Mathews, Gregory Mayer, James R. McCranie, G. John Measey, Fernando Mendoza-Quijano, Michele Menegon, Sebastien Metrailler, David A. Milton, Chad Montgomery, Sérgio A A Morato, Tami Mott, Antonio Muñoz-Alonso, John Murphy, Truong Q. Nguyen, Göran Nilson, Cristiano Nogueira, Herman Núñez, Nikolai Orlov, Hidetoshi Ota, Jose Ottenwalder, Theodore Papenfuss, Stesha Pasachnik, Paulo Passos, Olivier S G Pauwels, Néstor Pérez-Buitrago, Valentín Pérez-Mellado, Eric R. Pianka, Juan Pleguezuelos, Caroline Pollock, Paulino Ponce-Campos, Robert Powell, Fabio Pupin, Gustavo E. Quintero Díaz, Raju Radder, Jan Ramer, Arne R. Rasmussen, Christopher J. Raxworthy, Robert Reynolds, Nadia Richman, Edmund L. Rico, Elisa Riservato, Gilson Rivas, Pedro L B da Rocha, Mark Oliver Rödel, Lourdes Rodríguez Schettino, Willem M. Roosenburg, James P. Ross, Riyad Sadek, Kate Sanders, Georgina Santos-Barrera, Hermann H. Schleich, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Andreas Schmitz, Mozafar Sharifi, Glenn Shea, Hai Tao Shi, Richard Shine, Roberto Sindaco, Tahar Slimani, Ruchira Somaweera, Steve Spawls, Peter Stafford, Rob Stuebing, Sam Sweet, Emerson Sy, Helen J. Temple, Marcelo F. Tognelli, Krystal Tolley, Peter J. Tolson, Boris Tuniyev, Sako Tuniyev, Nazan üzüm, Gerard van Buurt, Monique Van Sluys, Alvaro Velasco, Miguel Vences, Milan Veselý, Sabine Vinke, Thomas Vinke, Gernot Vogel, Milan Vogrin, Richard C. Vogt, Oliver R. Wearn, Yehudah L. Werner, Martin J. Whiting, Thomas Wiewandt, John Wilkinson, Byron Wilson, Sally Wren, Tara Zamin, Kaiya Zhou, George Zug

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    347 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)372-385
    Number of pages14
    JournalBiological Conservation
    Volume157
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

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    reptile
    reptiles
    extinction risk
    extinction
    habitat loss
    habitat destruction
    environmental policy
    freshwater environment
    world
    Central Africa
    tropical region
    snake
    South East Asia
    snakes
    tropics
    biogeography
    biodiversity
    ecology
    taxonomy

    Cite this

    Böhm, M., Collen, B., Baillie, J. E. M., Bowles, P., Chanson, J., Cox, N., ... Zug, G. (2013). The conservation status of the world's reptiles. Biological Conservation, 157, 372-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015
    Böhm, Monika ; Collen, Ben ; Baillie, Jonathan E M ; Bowles, Philip ; Chanson, Janice ; Cox, Neil ; Hammerson, Geoffrey ; Hoffmann, Michael ; Livingstone, Suzanne R. ; Ram, Mala ; Rhodin, Anders G J ; Stuart, Simon N. ; van Dijk, Peter Paul ; Young, Bruce E. ; Afuang, Leticia E. ; Aghasyan, Aram ; García, Andrés ; Aguilar, César ; Ajtic, Rastko ; Akarsu, Ferdi ; Alencar, Laura R V ; Allison, Allen ; Ananjeva, Natalia ; Anderson, Steve ; Andren, Claes ; Ariano-Sánchez, Daniel ; Arredondo, Juan Camilo ; Auliya, Mark ; Austin, Christopher C. ; Avci, Aziz ; Baker, Patrick J. ; Barreto-Lima, André F. ; Barrio-Amorós, César L. ; Basu, Dhruvayothi ; Bates, Michael F. ; Batistella, Alexandre ; Bauer, Aaron ; Bennett, Daniel ; Böhme, Wolfgang ; Broadley, Don ; Brown, Rafe ; Burgess, Joseph ; Captain, Ashok ; Carreira, Santiago ; Castañeda, Maria del Rosario ; Castro, Fernando ; Catenazzi, Alessandro ; Cedeño-Vázquez, José R. ; Chapple, David G. ; Cheylan, Marc ; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F. ; Cogalniceanu, Dan ; Cogger, Hal ; Corti, Claudia ; Costa, Gabriel C. ; Couper, Patrick J. ; Courtney, Tony ; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka ; Crochet, Pierre André ; Crother, Brian ; Cruz, Felix ; Daltry, Jennifer C. ; Daniels, R. J Ranjit ; Das, Indraneil ; de Silva, Anslem ; Diesmos, Arvin C. ; Dirksen, Lutz ; Doan, Tiffany M. ; Dodd, C. Kenneth ; Dorcas, Michael E. ; Duarte de Barros Filho, Jose ; Egan, Vincent ; El Mouden, El Hassan ; Embert, Dirk ; Espinoza, Robert E. ; Fallabrino, Alejandro ; Feng, Xie ; Feng, Zhao Jun ; Fitzgerald, Lee ; Flores-Villela, Oscar ; França, Frederico G R ; Frost, Darrell ; Gadsden, Hector ; Gamble, Tony ; Ganesh, S. R. ; Garcia, Miguel ; García-Pérez, Juan E. ; Gatus, Joey ; Gaulke, Maren ; Geniez, Philippe ; GEORGES, Arthur ; Gerlach, Justin ; Goldberg, Stephen ; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos T ; Gower, David J. ; Grant, Tandora ; Greenbaum, Eli ; Grieco, Cristina ; Guo, Peng ; Hamilton, Alison M. ; Hare, Kelly ; Hedges, S. Blair ; Heideman, Neil ; Hilton-Taylor, Craig ; Hitchmough, Rod ; Hollingsworth, Bradford ; Hutchinson, Mark ; Ineich, Ivan ; Iverson, John ; Jaksic, Fabian M. ; Jenkins, Richard ; Joger, Ulrich ; Jose, Reizl ; Kaska, Yakup ; Kaya, U?ur ; Keogh, J. Scott ; Köhler, Gunther ; Kuchling, Gerald ; Kumluta?, Yusuf ; Kwet, Axel ; La Marca, Enrique ; Lamar, William ; Lane, Amanda ; Lardner, Bjorn ; Latta, Craig ; Latta, Gabrielle ; Lau, Michael ; Lavin, Pablo ; Lawson, Dwight ; LeBreton, Matthew ; Lehr, Edgar ; Limpus, Duncan ; Lipczynski, Nicola ; Lobo, Aaron S. ; López-Luna, Marco A. ; Luiselli, Luca ; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi ; Lundberg, Mikael ; Lymberakis, Petros ; Macey, Robert ; Magnusson, William E. ; Mahler, D. Luke ; Malhotra, Anita ; Mariaux, Jean ; Maritz, Bryan ; Marques, Otavio A V ; Márquez, Rafael ; Martins, Marcio ; Masterson, Gavin ; Mateo, José A. ; Mathew, Rosamma ; Mathews, Nixon ; Mayer, Gregory ; McCranie, James R. ; Measey, G. John ; Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando ; Menegon, Michele ; Metrailler, Sebastien ; Milton, David A. ; Montgomery, Chad ; Morato, Sérgio A A ; Mott, Tami ; Muñoz-Alonso, Antonio ; Murphy, John ; Nguyen, Truong Q. ; Nilson, Göran ; Nogueira, Cristiano ; Núñez, Herman ; Orlov, Nikolai ; Ota, Hidetoshi ; Ottenwalder, Jose ; Papenfuss, Theodore ; Pasachnik, Stesha ; Passos, Paulo ; Pauwels, Olivier S G ; Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor ; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín ; Pianka, Eric R. ; Pleguezuelos, Juan ; Pollock, Caroline ; Ponce-Campos, Paulino ; Powell, Robert ; Pupin, Fabio ; Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E. ; Radder, Raju ; Ramer, Jan ; Rasmussen, Arne R. ; Raxworthy, Christopher J. ; Reynolds, Robert ; Richman, Nadia ; Rico, Edmund L. ; Riservato, Elisa ; Rivas, Gilson ; da Rocha, Pedro L B ; Rödel, Mark Oliver ; Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes ; Roosenburg, Willem M. ; Ross, James P. ; Sadek, Riyad ; Sanders, Kate ; Santos-Barrera, Georgina ; Schleich, Hermann H. ; Schmidt, Benedikt R. ; Schmitz, Andreas ; Sharifi, Mozafar ; Shea, Glenn ; Shi, Hai Tao ; Shine, Richard ; Sindaco, Roberto ; Slimani, Tahar ; Somaweera, Ruchira ; Spawls, Steve ; Stafford, Peter ; Stuebing, Rob ; Sweet, Sam ; Sy, Emerson ; Temple, Helen J. ; Tognelli, Marcelo F. ; Tolley, Krystal ; Tolson, Peter J. ; Tuniyev, Boris ; Tuniyev, Sako ; üzüm, Nazan ; van Buurt, Gerard ; Van Sluys, Monique ; Velasco, Alvaro ; Vences, Miguel ; Veselý, Milan ; Vinke, Sabine ; Vinke, Thomas ; Vogel, Gernot ; Vogrin, Milan ; Vogt, Richard C. ; Wearn, Oliver R. ; Werner, Yehudah L. ; Whiting, Martin J. ; Wiewandt, Thomas ; Wilkinson, John ; Wilson, Byron ; Wren, Sally ; Zamin, Tara ; Zhou, Kaiya ; Zug, George. / The conservation status of the world's reptiles. In: Biological Conservation. 2013 ; Vol. 157. pp. 372-385.
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    abstract = "Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16{\%} of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles",
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    author = "Monika B{\"o}hm and Ben Collen and Baillie, {Jonathan E M} and Philip Bowles and Janice Chanson and Neil Cox and Geoffrey Hammerson and Michael Hoffmann and Livingstone, {Suzanne R.} and Mala Ram and Rhodin, {Anders G J} and Stuart, {Simon N.} and {van Dijk}, {Peter Paul} and Young, {Bruce E.} and Afuang, {Leticia E.} and Aram Aghasyan and Andr{\'e}s Garc{\'i}a and C{\'e}sar Aguilar and Rastko Ajtic and Ferdi Akarsu and Alencar, {Laura R V} and Allen Allison and Natalia Ananjeva and Steve Anderson and Claes Andren and Daniel Ariano-S{\'a}nchez and Arredondo, {Juan Camilo} and Mark Auliya and Austin, {Christopher C.} and Aziz Avci and Baker, {Patrick J.} and Barreto-Lima, {Andr{\'e} F.} and Barrio-Amor{\'o}s, {C{\'e}sar L.} and Dhruvayothi Basu and Bates, {Michael F.} and Alexandre Batistella and Aaron Bauer and Daniel Bennett and Wolfgang B{\"o}hme and Don Broadley and Rafe Brown and Joseph Burgess and Ashok Captain and Santiago Carreira and Casta{\~n}eda, {Maria del Rosario} and Fernando Castro and Alessandro Catenazzi and Cede{\~n}o-V{\'a}zquez, {Jos{\'e} R.} and Chapple, {David G.} and Marc Cheylan and Cisneros-Heredia, {Diego F.} and Dan Cogalniceanu and Hal Cogger and Claudia Corti and Costa, {Gabriel C.} and Couper, {Patrick J.} and Tony Courtney and Jelka Crnobrnja-Isailovic and Crochet, {Pierre Andr{\'e}} and Brian Crother and Felix Cruz and Daltry, {Jennifer C.} and Daniels, {R. J Ranjit} and Indraneil Das and {de Silva}, Anslem and Diesmos, {Arvin C.} and Lutz Dirksen and Doan, {Tiffany M.} and Dodd, {C. Kenneth} and Dorcas, {Michael E.} and {Duarte de Barros Filho}, Jose and Vincent Egan and {El Mouden}, {El Hassan} and Dirk Embert and Espinoza, {Robert E.} and Alejandro Fallabrino and Xie Feng and Feng, {Zhao Jun} and Lee Fitzgerald and Oscar Flores-Villela and Fran{\cc}a, {Frederico G R} and Darrell Frost and Hector Gadsden and Tony Gamble and Ganesh, {S. R.} and Miguel Garcia and Garc{\'i}a-P{\'e}rez, {Juan E.} and Joey Gatus and Maren Gaulke and Philippe Geniez and Arthur GEORGES and Justin Gerlach and Stephen Goldberg and Gonzalez, {Juan Carlos T} and Gower, {David J.} and Tandora Grant and Eli Greenbaum and Cristina Grieco and Peng Guo and Hamilton, {Alison M.} and Kelly Hare and Hedges, {S. 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    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015",
    language = "English",
    volume = "157",
    pages = "372--385",
    journal = "Biological Conservation",
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    }

    Böhm, M, Collen, B, Baillie, JEM, Bowles, P, Chanson, J, Cox, N, Hammerson, G, Hoffmann, M, Livingstone, SR, Ram, M, Rhodin, AGJ, Stuart, SN, van Dijk, PP, Young, BE, Afuang, LE, Aghasyan, A, García, A, Aguilar, C, Ajtic, R, Akarsu, F, Alencar, LRV, Allison, A, Ananjeva, N, Anderson, S, Andren, C, Ariano-Sánchez, D, Arredondo, JC, Auliya, M, Austin, CC, Avci, A, Baker, PJ, Barreto-Lima, AF, Barrio-Amorós, CL, Basu, D, Bates, MF, Batistella, A, Bauer, A, Bennett, D, Böhme, W, Broadley, D, Brown, R, Burgess, J, Captain, A, Carreira, S, Castañeda, MDR, Castro, F, Catenazzi, A, Cedeño-Vázquez, JR, Chapple, DG, Cheylan, M, Cisneros-Heredia, DF, Cogalniceanu, D, Cogger, H, Corti, C, Costa, GC, Couper, PJ, Courtney, T, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J, Crochet, PA, Crother, B, Cruz, F, Daltry, JC, Daniels, RJR, Das, I, de Silva, A, Diesmos, AC, Dirksen, L, Doan, TM, Dodd, CK, Dorcas, ME, Duarte de Barros Filho, J, Egan, V, El Mouden, EH, Embert, D, Espinoza, RE, Fallabrino, A, Feng, X, Feng, ZJ, Fitzgerald, L, Flores-Villela, O, França, FGR, Frost, D, Gadsden, H, Gamble, T, Ganesh, SR, Garcia, M, García-Pérez, JE, Gatus, J, Gaulke, M, Geniez, P, GEORGES, A, Gerlach, J, Goldberg, S, Gonzalez, JCT, Gower, DJ, Grant, T, Greenbaum, E, Grieco, C, Guo, P, Hamilton, AM, Hare, K, Hedges, SB, Heideman, N, Hilton-Taylor, C, Hitchmough, R, Hollingsworth, B, Hutchinson, M, Ineich, I, Iverson, J, Jaksic, FM, Jenkins, R, Joger, U, Jose, R, Kaska, Y, Kaya, U, Keogh, JS, Köhler, G, Kuchling, G, Kumluta?, Y, Kwet, A, La Marca, E, Lamar, W, Lane, A, Lardner, B, Latta, C, Latta, G, Lau, M, Lavin, P, Lawson, D, LeBreton, M, Lehr, E, Limpus, D, Lipczynski, N, Lobo, AS, López-Luna, MA, Luiselli, L, Lukoschek, V, Lundberg, M, Lymberakis, P, Macey, R, Magnusson, WE, Mahler, DL, Malhotra, A, Mariaux, J, Maritz, B, Marques, OAV, Márquez, R, Martins, M, Masterson, G, Mateo, JA, Mathew, R, Mathews, N, Mayer, G, McCranie, JR, Measey, GJ, Mendoza-Quijano, F, Menegon, M, Metrailler, S, Milton, DA, Montgomery, C, Morato, SAA, Mott, T, Muñoz-Alonso, A, Murphy, J, Nguyen, TQ, Nilson, G, Nogueira, C, Núñez, H, Orlov, N, Ota, H, Ottenwalder, J, Papenfuss, T, Pasachnik, S, Passos, P, Pauwels, OSG, Pérez-Buitrago, N, Pérez-Mellado, V, Pianka, ER, Pleguezuelos, J, Pollock, C, Ponce-Campos, P, Powell, R, Pupin, F, Quintero Díaz, GE, Radder, R, Ramer, J, Rasmussen, AR, Raxworthy, CJ, Reynolds, R, Richman, N, Rico, EL, Riservato, E, Rivas, G, da Rocha, PLB, Rödel, MO, Rodríguez Schettino, L, Roosenburg, WM, Ross, JP, Sadek, R, Sanders, K, Santos-Barrera, G, Schleich, HH, Schmidt, BR, Schmitz, A, Sharifi, M, Shea, G, Shi, HT, Shine, R, Sindaco, R, Slimani, T, Somaweera, R, Spawls, S, Stafford, P, Stuebing, R, Sweet, S, Sy, E, Temple, HJ, Tognelli, MF, Tolley, K, Tolson, PJ, Tuniyev, B, Tuniyev, S, üzüm, N, van Buurt, G, Van Sluys, M, Velasco, A, Vences, M, Veselý, M, Vinke, S, Vinke, T, Vogel, G, Vogrin, M, Vogt, RC, Wearn, OR, Werner, YL, Whiting, MJ, Wiewandt, T, Wilkinson, J, Wilson, B, Wren, S, Zamin, T, Zhou, K & Zug, G 2013, 'The conservation status of the world's reptiles', Biological Conservation, vol. 157, pp. 372-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015

    The conservation status of the world's reptiles. / Böhm, Monika; Collen, Ben; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Bowles, Philip; Chanson, Janice; Cox, Neil; Hammerson, Geoffrey; Hoffmann, Michael; Livingstone, Suzanne R.; Ram, Mala; Rhodin, Anders G J; Stuart, Simon N.; van Dijk, Peter Paul; Young, Bruce E.; Afuang, Leticia E.; Aghasyan, Aram; García, Andrés; Aguilar, César; Ajtic, Rastko; Akarsu, Ferdi; Alencar, Laura R V; Allison, Allen; Ananjeva, Natalia; Anderson, Steve; Andren, Claes; Ariano-Sánchez, Daniel; Arredondo, Juan Camilo; Auliya, Mark; Austin, Christopher C.; Avci, Aziz; Baker, Patrick J.; Barreto-Lima, André F.; Barrio-Amorós, César L.; Basu, Dhruvayothi; Bates, Michael F.; Batistella, Alexandre; Bauer, Aaron; Bennett, Daniel; Böhme, Wolfgang; Broadley, Don; Brown, Rafe; Burgess, Joseph; Captain, Ashok; Carreira, Santiago; Castañeda, Maria del Rosario; Castro, Fernando; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Cedeño-Vázquez, José R.; Chapple, David G.; Cheylan, Marc; Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.; Cogalniceanu, Dan; Cogger, Hal; Corti, Claudia; Costa, Gabriel C.; Couper, Patrick J.; Courtney, Tony; Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka; Crochet, Pierre André; Crother, Brian; Cruz, Felix; Daltry, Jennifer C.; Daniels, R. J Ranjit; Das, Indraneil; de Silva, Anslem; Diesmos, Arvin C.; Dirksen, Lutz; Doan, Tiffany M.; Dodd, C. Kenneth; Dorcas, Michael E.; Duarte de Barros Filho, Jose; Egan, Vincent; El Mouden, El Hassan; Embert, Dirk; Espinoza, Robert E.; Fallabrino, Alejandro; Feng, Xie; Feng, Zhao Jun; Fitzgerald, Lee; Flores-Villela, Oscar; França, Frederico G R; Frost, Darrell; Gadsden, Hector; Gamble, Tony; Ganesh, S. R.; Garcia, Miguel; García-Pérez, Juan E.; Gatus, Joey; Gaulke, Maren; Geniez, Philippe; GEORGES, Arthur; Gerlach, Justin; Goldberg, Stephen; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos T; Gower, David J.; Grant, Tandora; Greenbaum, Eli; Grieco, Cristina; Guo, Peng; Hamilton, Alison M.; Hare, Kelly; Hedges, S. Blair; Heideman, Neil; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hitchmough, Rod; Hollingsworth, Bradford; Hutchinson, Mark; Ineich, Ivan; Iverson, John; Jaksic, Fabian M.; Jenkins, Richard; Joger, Ulrich; Jose, Reizl; Kaska, Yakup; Kaya, U?ur; Keogh, J. Scott; Köhler, Gunther; Kuchling, Gerald; Kumluta?, Yusuf; Kwet, Axel; La Marca, Enrique; Lamar, William; Lane, Amanda; Lardner, Bjorn; Latta, Craig; Latta, Gabrielle; Lau, Michael; Lavin, Pablo; Lawson, Dwight; LeBreton, Matthew; Lehr, Edgar; Limpus, Duncan; Lipczynski, Nicola; Lobo, Aaron S.; López-Luna, Marco A.; Luiselli, Luca; Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi; Lundberg, Mikael; Lymberakis, Petros; Macey, Robert; Magnusson, William E.; Mahler, D. Luke; Malhotra, Anita; Mariaux, Jean; Maritz, Bryan; Marques, Otavio A V; Márquez, Rafael; Martins, Marcio; Masterson, Gavin; Mateo, José A.; Mathew, Rosamma; Mathews, Nixon; Mayer, Gregory; McCranie, James R.; Measey, G. John; Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando; Menegon, Michele; Metrailler, Sebastien; Milton, David A.; Montgomery, Chad; Morato, Sérgio A A; Mott, Tami; Muñoz-Alonso, Antonio; Murphy, John; Nguyen, Truong Q.; Nilson, Göran; Nogueira, Cristiano; Núñez, Herman; Orlov, Nikolai; Ota, Hidetoshi; Ottenwalder, Jose; Papenfuss, Theodore; Pasachnik, Stesha; Passos, Paulo; Pauwels, Olivier S G; Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Pérez-Mellado, Valentín; Pianka, Eric R.; Pleguezuelos, Juan; Pollock, Caroline; Ponce-Campos, Paulino; Powell, Robert; Pupin, Fabio; Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E.; Radder, Raju; Ramer, Jan; Rasmussen, Arne R.; Raxworthy, Christopher J.; Reynolds, Robert; Richman, Nadia; Rico, Edmund L.; Riservato, Elisa; Rivas, Gilson; da Rocha, Pedro L B; Rödel, Mark Oliver; Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes; Roosenburg, Willem M.; Ross, James P.; Sadek, Riyad; Sanders, Kate; Santos-Barrera, Georgina; Schleich, Hermann H.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Schmitz, Andreas; Sharifi, Mozafar; Shea, Glenn; Shi, Hai Tao; Shine, Richard; Sindaco, Roberto; Slimani, Tahar; Somaweera, Ruchira; Spawls, Steve; Stafford, Peter; Stuebing, Rob; Sweet, Sam; Sy, Emerson; Temple, Helen J.; Tognelli, Marcelo F.; Tolley, Krystal; Tolson, Peter J.; Tuniyev, Boris; Tuniyev, Sako; üzüm, Nazan; van Buurt, Gerard; Van Sluys, Monique; Velasco, Alvaro; Vences, Miguel; Veselý, Milan; Vinke, Sabine; Vinke, Thomas; Vogel, Gernot; Vogrin, Milan; Vogt, Richard C.; Wearn, Oliver R.; Werner, Yehudah L.; Whiting, Martin J.; Wiewandt, Thomas; Wilkinson, John; Wilson, Byron; Wren, Sally; Zamin, Tara; Zhou, Kaiya; Zug, George.

    In: Biological Conservation, Vol. 157, 2013, p. 372-385.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The conservation status of the world's reptiles

    AU - Böhm, Monika

    AU - Collen, Ben

    AU - Baillie, Jonathan E M

    AU - Bowles, Philip

    AU - Chanson, Janice

    AU - Cox, Neil

    AU - Hammerson, Geoffrey

    AU - Hoffmann, Michael

    AU - Livingstone, Suzanne R.

    AU - Ram, Mala

    AU - Rhodin, Anders G J

    AU - Stuart, Simon N.

    AU - van Dijk, Peter Paul

    AU - Young, Bruce E.

    AU - Afuang, Leticia E.

    AU - Aghasyan, Aram

    AU - García, Andrés

    AU - Aguilar, César

    AU - Ajtic, Rastko

    AU - Akarsu, Ferdi

    AU - Alencar, Laura R V

    AU - Allison, Allen

    AU - Ananjeva, Natalia

    AU - Anderson, Steve

    AU - Andren, Claes

    AU - Ariano-Sánchez, Daniel

    AU - Arredondo, Juan Camilo

    AU - Auliya, Mark

    AU - Austin, Christopher C.

    AU - Avci, Aziz

    AU - Baker, Patrick J.

    AU - Barreto-Lima, André F.

    AU - Barrio-Amorós, César L.

    AU - Basu, Dhruvayothi

    AU - Bates, Michael F.

    AU - Batistella, Alexandre

    AU - Bauer, Aaron

    AU - Bennett, Daniel

    AU - Böhme, Wolfgang

    AU - Broadley, Don

    AU - Brown, Rafe

    AU - Burgess, Joseph

    AU - Captain, Ashok

    AU - Carreira, Santiago

    AU - Castañeda, Maria del Rosario

    AU - Castro, Fernando

    AU - Catenazzi, Alessandro

    AU - Cedeño-Vázquez, José R.

    AU - Chapple, David G.

    AU - Cheylan, Marc

    AU - Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F.

    AU - Cogalniceanu, Dan

    AU - Cogger, Hal

    AU - Corti, Claudia

    AU - Costa, Gabriel C.

    AU - Couper, Patrick J.

    AU - Courtney, Tony

    AU - Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Jelka

    AU - Crochet, Pierre André

    AU - Crother, Brian

    AU - Cruz, Felix

    AU - Daltry, Jennifer C.

    AU - Daniels, R. J Ranjit

    AU - Das, Indraneil

    AU - de Silva, Anslem

    AU - Diesmos, Arvin C.

    AU - Dirksen, Lutz

    AU - Doan, Tiffany M.

    AU - Dodd, C. Kenneth

    AU - Dorcas, Michael E.

    AU - Duarte de Barros Filho, Jose

    AU - Egan, Vincent

    AU - El Mouden, El Hassan

    AU - Embert, Dirk

    AU - Espinoza, Robert E.

    AU - Fallabrino, Alejandro

    AU - Feng, Xie

    AU - Feng, Zhao Jun

    AU - Fitzgerald, Lee

    AU - Flores-Villela, Oscar

    AU - França, Frederico G R

    AU - Frost, Darrell

    AU - Gadsden, Hector

    AU - Gamble, Tony

    AU - Ganesh, S. R.

    AU - Garcia, Miguel

    AU - García-Pérez, Juan E.

    AU - Gatus, Joey

    AU - Gaulke, Maren

    AU - Geniez, Philippe

    AU - GEORGES, Arthur

    AU - Gerlach, Justin

    AU - Goldberg, Stephen

    AU - Gonzalez, Juan Carlos T

    AU - Gower, David J.

    AU - Grant, Tandora

    AU - Greenbaum, Eli

    AU - Grieco, Cristina

    AU - Guo, Peng

    AU - Hamilton, Alison M.

    AU - Hare, Kelly

    AU - Hedges, S. Blair

    AU - Heideman, Neil

    AU - Hilton-Taylor, Craig

    AU - Hitchmough, Rod

    AU - Hollingsworth, Bradford

    AU - Hutchinson, Mark

    AU - Ineich, Ivan

    AU - Iverson, John

    AU - Jaksic, Fabian M.

    AU - Jenkins, Richard

    AU - Joger, Ulrich

    AU - Jose, Reizl

    AU - Kaska, Yakup

    AU - Kaya, U?ur

    AU - Keogh, J. Scott

    AU - Köhler, Gunther

    AU - Kuchling, Gerald

    AU - Kumluta?, Yusuf

    AU - Kwet, Axel

    AU - La Marca, Enrique

    AU - Lamar, William

    AU - Lane, Amanda

    AU - Lardner, Bjorn

    AU - Latta, Craig

    AU - Latta, Gabrielle

    AU - Lau, Michael

    AU - Lavin, Pablo

    AU - Lawson, Dwight

    AU - LeBreton, Matthew

    AU - Lehr, Edgar

    AU - Limpus, Duncan

    AU - Lipczynski, Nicola

    AU - Lobo, Aaron S.

    AU - López-Luna, Marco A.

    AU - Luiselli, Luca

    AU - Lukoschek, Vimoksalehi

    AU - Lundberg, Mikael

    AU - Lymberakis, Petros

    AU - Macey, Robert

    AU - Magnusson, William E.

    AU - Mahler, D. Luke

    AU - Malhotra, Anita

    AU - Mariaux, Jean

    AU - Maritz, Bryan

    AU - Marques, Otavio A V

    AU - Márquez, Rafael

    AU - Martins, Marcio

    AU - Masterson, Gavin

    AU - Mateo, José A.

    AU - Mathew, Rosamma

    AU - Mathews, Nixon

    AU - Mayer, Gregory

    AU - McCranie, James R.

    AU - Measey, G. John

    AU - Mendoza-Quijano, Fernando

    AU - Menegon, Michele

    AU - Metrailler, Sebastien

    AU - Milton, David A.

    AU - Montgomery, Chad

    AU - Morato, Sérgio A A

    AU - Mott, Tami

    AU - Muñoz-Alonso, Antonio

    AU - Murphy, John

    AU - Nguyen, Truong Q.

    AU - Nilson, Göran

    AU - Nogueira, Cristiano

    AU - Núñez, Herman

    AU - Orlov, Nikolai

    AU - Ota, Hidetoshi

    AU - Ottenwalder, Jose

    AU - Papenfuss, Theodore

    AU - Pasachnik, Stesha

    AU - Passos, Paulo

    AU - Pauwels, Olivier S G

    AU - Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor

    AU - Pérez-Mellado, Valentín

    AU - Pianka, Eric R.

    AU - Pleguezuelos, Juan

    AU - Pollock, Caroline

    AU - Ponce-Campos, Paulino

    AU - Powell, Robert

    AU - Pupin, Fabio

    AU - Quintero Díaz, Gustavo E.

    AU - Radder, Raju

    AU - Ramer, Jan

    AU - Rasmussen, Arne R.

    AU - Raxworthy, Christopher J.

    AU - Reynolds, Robert

    AU - Richman, Nadia

    AU - Rico, Edmund L.

    AU - Riservato, Elisa

    AU - Rivas, Gilson

    AU - da Rocha, Pedro L B

    AU - Rödel, Mark Oliver

    AU - Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes

    AU - Roosenburg, Willem M.

    AU - Ross, James P.

    AU - Sadek, Riyad

    AU - Sanders, Kate

    AU - Santos-Barrera, Georgina

    AU - Schleich, Hermann H.

    AU - Schmidt, Benedikt R.

    AU - Schmitz, Andreas

    AU - Sharifi, Mozafar

    AU - Shea, Glenn

    AU - Shi, Hai Tao

    AU - Shine, Richard

    AU - Sindaco, Roberto

    AU - Slimani, Tahar

    AU - Somaweera, Ruchira

    AU - Spawls, Steve

    AU - Stafford, Peter

    AU - Stuebing, Rob

    AU - Sweet, Sam

    AU - Sy, Emerson

    AU - Temple, Helen J.

    AU - Tognelli, Marcelo F.

    AU - Tolley, Krystal

    AU - Tolson, Peter J.

    AU - Tuniyev, Boris

    AU - Tuniyev, Sako

    AU - üzüm, Nazan

    AU - van Buurt, Gerard

    AU - Van Sluys, Monique

    AU - Velasco, Alvaro

    AU - Vences, Miguel

    AU - Veselý, Milan

    AU - Vinke, Sabine

    AU - Vinke, Thomas

    AU - Vogel, Gernot

    AU - Vogrin, Milan

    AU - Vogt, Richard C.

    AU - Wearn, Oliver R.

    AU - Werner, Yehudah L.

    AU - Whiting, Martin J.

    AU - Wiewandt, Thomas

    AU - Wilkinson, John

    AU - Wilson, Byron

    AU - Wren, Sally

    AU - Zamin, Tara

    AU - Zhou, Kaiya

    AU - Zug, George

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles

    AB - Effective and targeted conservation action requires detailed information about species, their distribution, systematics and ecology as well as the distribution of threat processes which affect them. Knowledge of reptilian diversity remains surprisingly disparate, and innovative means of gaining rapid insight into the status of reptiles are needed in order to highlight urgent conservation cases and inform environmental policy with appropriate biodiversity information in a timely manner. We present the first ever global analysis of extinction risk in reptiles, based on a random representative sample of 1500 species (16% of all currently known species). To our knowledge, our results provide the first analysis of the global conservation status and distribution patterns of reptiles and the threats affecting them, highlighting conservation priorities and knowledge gaps which need to be addressed urgently to ensure the continued survival of the world’s reptiles. Nearly one in five reptilian species are threatened with extinction, with another one in five species classed as Data Deficient. The proportion of threatened reptile species is highest in freshwater environments, tropical regions and on oceanic islands, while data deficiency was highest in tropical areas, such as Central Africa and Southeast Asia, and among fossorial reptiles. Our results emphasise the need for research attention to be focussed on tropical areas which are experiencing the most dramatic rates of habitat loss, on fossorial reptiles for which there is a chronic lack of data, and on certain taxa such as snakes for which extinction risk may currently be underestimated due to lack of population information. Conservation actions specifically need to mitigate the effects of human-induced habitat loss and harvesting, which are the predominant threats to reptiles

    KW - Distribution maps

    KW - Extinction risk

    KW - IUCN Red List

    KW - Lizards

    KW - Snakes

    KW - Threatened species

    KW - Turtles

    U2 - 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015

    DO - 10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015

    M3 - Article

    VL - 157

    SP - 372

    EP - 385

    JO - Biological Conservation

    JF - Biological Conservation

    SN - 0006-3207

    ER -

    Böhm M, Collen B, Baillie JEM, Bowles P, Chanson J, Cox N et al. The conservation status of the world's reptiles. Biological Conservation. 2013;157:372-385. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2012.07.015