The graphics-decoding proficiency (G-DP) instrument was developed as a screening test for the purpose of measuring students’ (aged 8–11 years) capacity to solve graphics-based mathematics tasks. These tasks include number lines, column graphs, maps and pie charts. The instrument was developed within a theoretical framework which highlights the various types of information graphics commonly presented to students in large-scale national and international assessments. The instrument provides researchers, classroom teachers and test designers with an assessment tool which measures students’ G-DP across and within five broad categories of information graphics. The instrument has implications for a number of stakeholders in an era where graphics have become an increasingly important way of representing information.