The effect of bright light on lens compensation in Chicks

Regan S. Ashby, Frank Schaeffel

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    140 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    PURPOSE. It has been shown that sunlight or bright indoor light can inhibit the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. It remains unclear whether light merely acts on deprivation myopia or, more generally, modulates the rate of emmetropization and its set point. This study was conducted to test how bright light interacts with compensation for imposed optical defocus. Furthermore, a dopamine antagonist was applied to test whether the protective effect of light is mediated by dopamine. METHODS. Experiment A: Chicks monocularly wore either -7 or +7 D lenses for a period of 5 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 12 and 16, respectively) or under high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux, n = 12 and 16). Experiment B: Chicks wore diffusers for a period of 4 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 9) or high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux), with the bright-light group intravitreally injected daily with either the dopamine D2 antagonist spiperone (500 μM, n = 9) or a vehicle solution (0.1% ascorbic acid, n = 9), with an untreated group serving as the control (n = 6). Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments. RESULTS. Exposure to high illuminances (15,000 lux) for 5 hours per day significantly slowed compensation for negative lenses, compared with that seen under 500 lux, although full compensation was still achieved. Compensation for positive lenses was accelerated by exposure to high illuminances but, again, the end point refraction was unchanged, compared with that of the 500-lux group. High illuminance also reduced deprivation myopia by roughly 60%, compared with that seen under 500 lux. This protective effect was abolished, however, by the daily injection of spiperone, but was unaffected by the injection of a vehicle solution. CONCLUSIONS. High illuminance levels reduce the rate of compensation for negative lenses and enhance the rate for positive lenses, but do not change the set point of emmetropization (target refraction). The retardation of myopia development by light is partially mediated by dopamine, as the injection of a dopamine antagonist abolishes the protective effect of light, at least in the case of deprivation myopia.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)5247-5253
    Number of pages7
    JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
    Volume51
    Issue number10
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Oct 2010

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    Lenses
    Myopia
    Light
    Spiperone
    Dopamine Antagonists
    Injections
    Dopamine
    Withholding Treatment
    Sunlight
    Ascorbic Acid

    Cite this

    @article{7ae1d2813cc54a06a5fd4f935f867a8e,
    title = "The effect of bright light on lens compensation in Chicks",
    abstract = "PURPOSE. It has been shown that sunlight or bright indoor light can inhibit the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. It remains unclear whether light merely acts on deprivation myopia or, more generally, modulates the rate of emmetropization and its set point. This study was conducted to test how bright light interacts with compensation for imposed optical defocus. Furthermore, a dopamine antagonist was applied to test whether the protective effect of light is mediated by dopamine. METHODS. Experiment A: Chicks monocularly wore either -7 or +7 D lenses for a period of 5 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 12 and 16, respectively) or under high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux, n = 12 and 16). Experiment B: Chicks wore diffusers for a period of 4 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 9) or high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux), with the bright-light group intravitreally injected daily with either the dopamine D2 antagonist spiperone (500 μM, n = 9) or a vehicle solution (0.1{\%} ascorbic acid, n = 9), with an untreated group serving as the control (n = 6). Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments. RESULTS. Exposure to high illuminances (15,000 lux) for 5 hours per day significantly slowed compensation for negative lenses, compared with that seen under 500 lux, although full compensation was still achieved. Compensation for positive lenses was accelerated by exposure to high illuminances but, again, the end point refraction was unchanged, compared with that of the 500-lux group. High illuminance also reduced deprivation myopia by roughly 60{\%}, compared with that seen under 500 lux. This protective effect was abolished, however, by the daily injection of spiperone, but was unaffected by the injection of a vehicle solution. CONCLUSIONS. High illuminance levels reduce the rate of compensation for negative lenses and enhance the rate for positive lenses, but do not change the set point of emmetropization (target refraction). The retardation of myopia development by light is partially mediated by dopamine, as the injection of a dopamine antagonist abolishes the protective effect of light, at least in the case of deprivation myopia.",
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    pages = "5247--5253",
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    The effect of bright light on lens compensation in Chicks. / Ashby, Regan S.; Schaeffel, Frank.

    In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Vol. 51, No. 10, 10.2010, p. 5247-5253.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The effect of bright light on lens compensation in Chicks

    AU - Ashby, Regan S.

    AU - Schaeffel, Frank

    PY - 2010/10

    Y1 - 2010/10

    N2 - PURPOSE. It has been shown that sunlight or bright indoor light can inhibit the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. It remains unclear whether light merely acts on deprivation myopia or, more generally, modulates the rate of emmetropization and its set point. This study was conducted to test how bright light interacts with compensation for imposed optical defocus. Furthermore, a dopamine antagonist was applied to test whether the protective effect of light is mediated by dopamine. METHODS. Experiment A: Chicks monocularly wore either -7 or +7 D lenses for a period of 5 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 12 and 16, respectively) or under high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux, n = 12 and 16). Experiment B: Chicks wore diffusers for a period of 4 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 9) or high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux), with the bright-light group intravitreally injected daily with either the dopamine D2 antagonist spiperone (500 μM, n = 9) or a vehicle solution (0.1% ascorbic acid, n = 9), with an untreated group serving as the control (n = 6). Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments. RESULTS. Exposure to high illuminances (15,000 lux) for 5 hours per day significantly slowed compensation for negative lenses, compared with that seen under 500 lux, although full compensation was still achieved. Compensation for positive lenses was accelerated by exposure to high illuminances but, again, the end point refraction was unchanged, compared with that of the 500-lux group. High illuminance also reduced deprivation myopia by roughly 60%, compared with that seen under 500 lux. This protective effect was abolished, however, by the daily injection of spiperone, but was unaffected by the injection of a vehicle solution. CONCLUSIONS. High illuminance levels reduce the rate of compensation for negative lenses and enhance the rate for positive lenses, but do not change the set point of emmetropization (target refraction). The retardation of myopia development by light is partially mediated by dopamine, as the injection of a dopamine antagonist abolishes the protective effect of light, at least in the case of deprivation myopia.

    AB - PURPOSE. It has been shown that sunlight or bright indoor light can inhibit the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. It remains unclear whether light merely acts on deprivation myopia or, more generally, modulates the rate of emmetropization and its set point. This study was conducted to test how bright light interacts with compensation for imposed optical defocus. Furthermore, a dopamine antagonist was applied to test whether the protective effect of light is mediated by dopamine. METHODS. Experiment A: Chicks monocularly wore either -7 or +7 D lenses for a period of 5 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 12 and 16, respectively) or under high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux, n = 12 and 16). Experiment B: Chicks wore diffusers for a period of 4 days, either under normal laboratory illuminance (500 lux, n = 9) or high ambient illuminance (15,000 lux), with the bright-light group intravitreally injected daily with either the dopamine D2 antagonist spiperone (500 μM, n = 9) or a vehicle solution (0.1% ascorbic acid, n = 9), with an untreated group serving as the control (n = 6). Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments. RESULTS. Exposure to high illuminances (15,000 lux) for 5 hours per day significantly slowed compensation for negative lenses, compared with that seen under 500 lux, although full compensation was still achieved. Compensation for positive lenses was accelerated by exposure to high illuminances but, again, the end point refraction was unchanged, compared with that of the 500-lux group. High illuminance also reduced deprivation myopia by roughly 60%, compared with that seen under 500 lux. This protective effect was abolished, however, by the daily injection of spiperone, but was unaffected by the injection of a vehicle solution. CONCLUSIONS. High illuminance levels reduce the rate of compensation for negative lenses and enhance the rate for positive lenses, but do not change the set point of emmetropization (target refraction). The retardation of myopia development by light is partially mediated by dopamine, as the injection of a dopamine antagonist abolishes the protective effect of light, at least in the case of deprivation myopia.

    KW - Retina

    KW - Dopamine

    KW - Myopia

    KW - Light intensity

    KW - Refractive error

    KW - Axial length

    KW - Chicken

    KW - Light

    KW - Ocular development

    KW - Eye growth

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    U2 - 10.1167/iovs.09-4689

    DO - 10.1167/iovs.09-4689

    M3 - Article

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    EP - 5253

    JO - Investigative Ophthalmology

    JF - Investigative Ophthalmology

    SN - 0146-0404

    IS - 10

    ER -