The effect of electrical head-only stun duration on electroencephalographic-measured seizure and brain amino acid neurotransmitter release

C. J. Cook, C. E. Devine, K. V. Gilbert, D. D. Smith, S. A. Maasland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Effective electrical head-only stunning produces a seizure-like state followed by a period of analgesia seen in animals allowed to recover. Passing of a 1·0 A current (50 Hz, 500 V) for less than 0·2 s, through the head of a sheep does not produce a seizure-like state as evidenced by recorded electroencephalogram. Corresponding to this lack of seizure-like state, the release of the neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate, in the brain, occurs to levels associated with arousal rather than seizure. At a duration of 0·2 s, the same stun parameters as above produce a seizure-like state and the release of glutamate and aspartate rises dramatically. The length of the seizure-like state, and the levels of release of glutamate, aspartate and a third neurotransmitter gamma amino-4-butyric acid (GABA), increased with stun duration until 4·0 s duration, where a peak in these parameters was seen. Stun durations of 2·0, 4·0, 8·0 and 12·0 s all produce similar effects. At a duration of 20 s, however, the length of the seizure-like state and the release of neurotransmitters is less than at shorter stun durations. For welfare purposes a head-only electrical stun, of 1·0 A, at a duration as low as 0·2 s produces unconsciousness and analgesia to subsequent slaughter procedures. However, maximum welfare benefits appear attainable at durations between 2·0 and 20·0 s.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)137-147
Number of pages11
JournalMeat Science
Volume40
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

seizures
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitter Agents
Seizures
Head
brain
Amino Acids
amino acids
duration
Brain
Aspartic Acid
aspartic acid
Glutamic Acid
glutamates
Analgesia
analgesia
unconsciousness
Butyric Acid
Unconsciousness
electroencephalography

Cite this

Cook, C. J. ; Devine, C. E. ; Gilbert, K. V. ; Smith, D. D. ; Maasland, S. A. / The effect of electrical head-only stun duration on electroencephalographic-measured seizure and brain amino acid neurotransmitter release. In: Meat Science. 1995 ; Vol. 40, No. 2. pp. 137-147.
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The effect of electrical head-only stun duration on electroencephalographic-measured seizure and brain amino acid neurotransmitter release. / Cook, C. J.; Devine, C. E.; Gilbert, K. V.; Smith, D. D.; Maasland, S. A.

In: Meat Science, Vol. 40, No. 2, 1995, p. 137-147.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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